[skip to content]

Department of Music

Music of the Middle East and North Africa

Course Code:
155800068
Status:
Course Not Running 2014/2015
Unit value:
1
Taught in:
Full Year

A survey of the many distinctive musics of the Middle East and North Africa, as well as as a forum for critically examining the performative spaces where music, religion, politics, and identity intersect. 

Term 1 - “Histories, Theories, Debates” 

Explores major gate-keeping concepts associated with Middle Eastern musicology, such as:

  • philosophies of music; 
  • the relationship between music and religion; 
  • nationalism and globalisation; 
  • music and the body. 

These issues, and the debates surrounding them, provide the necessary historical and theoretical background for our studies in Term 2.

Term 2 - “Case Studies”

Which replaces the wide-angle lens perspective of Term 1 with a more microscopic approach as we consider several case studies of religious, popular, classical, poetic, and trance traditions from across the region.

Objectives and learning outcomes of the course

At the end of the course, students should be able to recognise aurally and contextualise sociohistorically and culturally the major music traditions of the non-Jewish Middle East and of Africa north of the Sahara. They should be able to describe the theoretical bases (including e.g. melodic and rhythmic modes) of the major classical traditions. They should also be conversant with various debates about these musics with reference to gender, politics, identity and similar topics mentioned in the syllabus. There will be an opportunity to develop skills in transcribing (notating) music, for those who choose to focus on this in a coursework project.

Workload

Two hours per week

Scope and syllabus

This is a two-term course serving not only as a survey of the many distinctive musics of the Middle East and North Africa, but also as a forum for critically examining the performative spaces where music, religion, politics, and power intersect. 

Term 1 (“Histories, Theories, Debates”) explores the major gate-keeping concepts associated with Middle Eastern musicology, such as the relationship between music and the sacred, the debate over the permissibility of music in Islam, the politics of producing Arabic music theory, and gender and music in the public sphere. These issues, and the debates surrounding them, will provide the necessary historical and theoretical background for our studies in Term 2 (“Ethnographic Case Studies”), where we will trade in our wide-angle lens perspective of Term 1 for a more microscopic approach and consider several late-twentieth century ethnographic studies of music and performance in this region. 

Term 2 topics will include gender and identity in Turkish, Egyptian, and Franco-Algerian popular musics; music and poetics in Egypt and Yemen; globalisation, technology, and new paths of sonic circulation across the Middle East; the world music market and the Western imagination; neo-traditionalism; Arab music in Israel; music and nations without states (Kurdish, Armenian, Palestinian); and music and trance in North Africa, among others. (N.B. Jewish music is covered in a separate MMus course, Music of the Jews.)

Seminar Presentations: Each week, one student will give a short, informal presentation on a recorded piece of Middle Eastern music. This will enable students to practice their aural skills.

Method of assessment

Exam 40% + aural 20%, coursework 2@20%

Suggested reading

  • Abu-Haidar, Jareer A. "The Case for the Arabic Origins of the Muwashshahat: Court Poetry and Burlesque in Al-Andalus." Maghreb Review 18.1-2 (1993): 88-96.
  • Abu-Lughod, Lila. Veiled Sentiments: Honor and Poetry in a Bedouin Society. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 1986.
  • al-Faruqi, Lois Ibsen. "Music, Musicians and Muslim Law." Asian Music 17.1 (1985): 13-36.
  • 'Awad, Mahmud. "Excerpts from The Umm Kulthum Nobody Knows, as told by Umm Kulthum, famed Egyptian singer, to Mahmud 'Awad." In Middle Eastern Muslim Women Speak, ed. Elizabeth W. Fernea, 135-66. Austin: U. of Texas Press, 1978.
  • Baldassarre, Antonio. "Moroccan World Beat through the Media." In Mediterranean Mosaic: Popular Music and Global Sounds, ed. Goffredo Plastino, 79-100. Routledge, 2003.
  • Blum, Stephen. "Hearing the Music of the Middle East." In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 6: The Middle East, ed. Virginia Danielson et al, 3-13. Routledge, 2002.
  • Bohlman, Philip V. "R. G. Kiesewetter's Die Musik Der Araber: A Pioneering Ethnomusicological Study of Arabic Writings on Music." Asian Music 18.1 (1986): 164-96.
  • Bohlman, Philip V. "The European Discovery of Music in the Islamic World and the 'Non-Western' in Nineteenth-Century Music History." Journal of Musicology 5.2 (1987): 147-64.
  • Bohlman, Philip V. “The Middle East.” Grove Music Online. Ed. L. Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com
  • Cachia, Pierre. "A Nineteenth-Century Arab's Observations on European Music." Ethnomusicology 17.41-51 (1973).
  • Caton, Steven C. "Peaks of Yemen I Summon": Poetry as Cultural Practice in a North Yemeni Tribe. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 1990.
  • Chlyeh, A. Les Gnaoua du Maroc: itineraires, initiatiques, transe et possession. Paris, 1999.
  • Crapanzano, Vincent. The Hamadsha: A Study in Moroccan Ethnopsychiatry. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: U. of California Press, 1973.
  • Danielson, Virginia, and Alexander J. Fisher. "History of Scholarship: Narratives of Middle Eastern Music History." In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 6: The Middle East, ed. V.
  • Danlelson et al.. Routledge, 2002.
  • Danielson, Virginia, Scott Marcus, and Dwight Reynolds, eds. The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 6: The Middle East. Routledge, 2002.
  • Danielson, Virginia. "Artists and Entrepreneurs: Female Singers in Cairo During the 1920s." In Women in Middle Eastern History: Shifting Boundaries in Sex and Gender, ed. Nikki R. Keddie and Beth Baron, 292-309. New Haven: Yale U. Press, 1991.
  • Danielson, Virginia. The Voice of Egypt: Umm Kulthum, Arabic Song, and Egyptian Society in the Twentieth Century. Chicago: U. of Chicago Press, 1997.
  • Daoudi, Bouziane, and Hadj Miliani. L'aventure du raï: Musique et société. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1996.
  • Davis, Ruth. "Melodic and Rhythmic Genre in the Tunisian Nuba: A Performance Analysis." In Ethnomusicologica Ii: Concepts of Mode and Genre in Recent Ethnomusicological Research, ed. Giovanni Giuriati, 71-109. Siena, Italy: Accademia Musicale Chigiana, 1993.
  • Davis, Ruth. "The Effects of Notation on Performance Practice in Tunisian Art Music." World of Music 34.1 (1992): 85-114.
  • Davis, Ruth. "The Tunisian Nuba as Cyclic Genre." In Regionale Maqam--Tradition in Geschichte Und Gegenwart. Berlin, 1992.
  • Denny, Frederick. "Qur'an Recitation: A Tradition of Oral Performance and Transmission." Oral Tradition 4.1-2 (1989): 5-26.
  • d'Erlanger, Rodolphe. La Musique Arabe. 6 vols. Paris: Geuthner, 1930-1959.
  • Dermenghem, E. "Enquêtes sure les confréries noires (Diwan de Sidi Blal, Sidi Merzoug)." Bulletin de Liaison Saharienne 2.6 (1951): 14-17.
  • Doubleday, Veronica. Three Women of Herat. London: Cape, 1988.
  • During, Jean. "Hearing and Understanding in the Islamic Gnosis." World of Music 39.2 (1997): 127-37.
  • Ehrenkreutz, Stefan. "Medieval Arabic Music Theory and Contemporary Scholarship." Arab Studies Quarterly 2 (1980): 249-65.
  • Eickelman, Dale F. "The Art of Memory: Islamic Education and Its Social Reproduction." Comparative Studies in Society and History 20.4 (1978): 485-516.
  • Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East and Central Asia: An Anthropological Approach. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1998.
  • el-Shawan, Salwa. "Traditional Arab Music Ensembles in Egypt since 1967: "the Continuity of Tradition within a Contemporary Framework"?" Ethnomusicology 28.2 (1984): 271-88.
  • Elsner, Jürgen. "Listening to Arabic Music." World of Music 39.2 (1997): 111-26.
  • Farhat, Hormoz. The Dastgah Concept in Persian Music. Cambridge U. Press, 1990.
  • Farmer, G. H. An Old Moorish Lute Tutor, Being Four Arabic Texts from Unique Manuscripts in the Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid (No. 334) and the Staatsbibliothek, Berlin (Lbg. 516). Glasgow: Civic Press, 1933.
  • Farmer, G. H. Historical Facts for the Arabian Musical Influence. New York: Arno, 1978.
  • Farmer, G. H. History of Arabian Music to the Thirteenth Century. London: Reeves, 1929.
  • Farmer, G. H. Sa'adyah Gaon on the Influence of Music. London: Probsthain, 1943.
  • Farmer, G. H. The Arabian Influence on Musical Theory. London: Reeves, 1925.
  • Farmer, George Henry. Studies in Oriental Music. Frankfurt am Main: Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, 1997.
  • Faruqi, Lois Ibsen al-. “Muwashshah: A Vocal Form in Islamic Culture.” Ethnomusicology 19.1 (1975): 1-29.
  • Feldman, Walter. Music of the Ottoman Court: Makam Composition and the Early Ottoman Instrumental Repertoire. Berlin: VWB (Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung), 1996.
  • Ferchiou, Sophie. "The Possession Cults of Tunisia: a Religious System Functioning as a System of Reference and a Social Field for Performing Actions." In Women's Medicine: The Zar-bori Cult in Africa and Beyond, ed. I.M. Lewis, Ahmed Al-Safi and Sayyid Hurreiz, 209-18. Edinburgh U. Press, 1991.
  • Franken, Marjorie. "Farida Fahmy and the Dancer's Image in Egyptian Film." In Images of Enchantment: Visual and Performing Arts of the Middle East, ed. Sherifa Zuhur, 265-81. Cairo: American University in Cairo, 1998.
  • Frishkopf, Michael. "Some Meanings of the Spanish Tinge in Contemporary Egyptian Music." In Mediterranean Mosaic: Popular Music and Global Sounds, ed. Goffredo Plastino, 143-78. Routledge, 2003.
  • Gilsenan, Michael. Recognizing Islam: religion and society in the modern Middle East. Revised ed. London: I.B. Tauris, 2000.
  • Graham, William A. "The Qur'an as Spoken Word: An Islamic Contribution to the Understanding of Scripture." In Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies, ed. Richard C. Martin, 23-40. Tucson: U. of Arizona, 1985.
  • Gross, Joan, David McMurray, and Ted Swedeburg. "Arab Noise and Ramadan Nights: Raï, Rap, and Franco-Maghrebi Identities." In Displacement, Diaspora, and Geographies of Identity, ed. Smadar Lavie and Ted Swedeburg, 119-55. Durham and London: Duke U. Press, 1996.
  • Guettat, Mahmoud. "Coexistence De La Qacida, Du Muwashshah, Et Du Zajal Dans La Nawba: L'exemple Tunisien." In Le Chant Arabo-Andalou: Essai Sur Le Rurbain Ou La Topique De La Norme Et De La Marge Dans Le Patrimonie Musical Arabe, ed. Nadir Marouf, 31-48. Paris: Harmattan, 1995.
  • Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. London: Faber and Faber, 1991.
  • Jenkins, Jean and Poul Rovsing Olsen. Music and Musical Instruments in the World of Islam. London: World of Islam Festival Publishing Company Ltd., 1976.
  • Johns, Anthony, ed. International Congress for the Study of the Qur'an. Canberra: Australian National University, 1980.
  • Jones, L. JaFran. "A Sociohistorical Perspective on Tunisian Women as Professional Musicians." In Women and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective, ed. Ellen Koskoff, 69-83. Champaign-Urbana: U. of Illinois Press, 1987.
  • Jones, L. JaFran. "Women in Non-Western Music." In Women and Music: A History, ed. Karin Pendle, 314-30. Bloomington: Indiana U. Press, 1991.
  • Kapchan, Deborah. "Possessing Gnawa Culture: Displaying Sound, Creating History in an Unofficial Museum." In Music & Anthropology: Journal of Musical Anthropology of the Mediterranean: U. of Bologna, Italy, 2002.
  • Karakayali, Nedim. "Arabesk." In Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 6: The Middle East, ed. V. Danlelson et al., 255-59. Routledge, 2002.
  • Lambert, Jean. Le Médecine de l’Âme : Musique et musiciens dans la société citadine à San’a’ (République du Yémen). Hommes et Musiques, Collections de la Société Française d’Ethnomusicologie. Nanterre : Société d’ethnologie, 1997.
  • Langlois, Tony. "The Gnawa of Oujda: Music at the Margins." World of Music 40.1 (1998): 135-56.
  • Lapassade, Georges. Les Gens de l'ombre. Paris: Anthropos-Les Méridiens, 1982.
  • Lapassade, Georges. Les Rites de Possessions. Paris: Anthropos, 1997.
  • Lewis, I.M., Ahmed Al-Safi, and Sayyid Hurreiz, eds. Women's Medicine: The Zar-Bori Cult in Africa and Beyond. Edinburgh U. Press, 1991.
  • Lorius, Cassandra. "'Oh Boy, You Salt of the Earth': Outwitting Patriarchy in Raqs Baladi." Popular Music (Special Middle East Issue) 15.3 (1996): 285-98.
  • Lortat-Jacob, Bernard. "Community Music as an Obstacle to Professionalism: A Berber Example." Ethnomusicology (1981): 87-98.
  • Mallah, Issam. Arab Music and Musical Notation. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1997.
  • Marcus, Scott. "The Periodization of Modern Arab Music Theory: Continuity and Change in the Definition of Maqamat." Pacific Revue of Ethnomusicology 5 (1989): 35-49.
  • Marouf, Nadir. "Structure Du Répertoire Andalou: Quelques Probl 32?mes De Méthode." In Le Chant Arabo-Andalou: Essai Sur Le Rurbain Ou La Topique De La Norme Et De La Marge Dans Le Patrimonie Musical Arabe, ed. Nadir Marouf. Paris: Harmattan, 1995.
  • Marranci, Gabriele. "A Complex Identity and its Musical Representation: Beurs and Raï Music in Paris." In Music & Anthropology: Journal of Musical Anthropology of the Mediterranean: U. of Bologna, Italy, 2000.
  • Marranci, Gabriele. "Pop-Raï: From a 'Local' Tradition to Globalization." In Mediterranean Mosaic: Popular Music and Global Sounds, ed. Goffredo Plastino, 101-20. Routledge, 2003.
  • Monroe, James T. "Which Came First, the Zajal or the Muwwassaha: Some Evidence for the Oral Origins of Hispano-Arabic Strophic Poetry." Oral Tradition 4.1-2 (1989): 38-64.
  • Morsy, Soheir A. "Spirit Possession in Egyptian Ethnomedicine: Origins, Comparison, and Historical Specificity." In Women's Medicine: The Zar-Bori Cult in Africa and Beyond, ed. I.M. Lewis, Ahmed Al-Safi and Sayyid Hurreiz, 189-208. Edinburgh: Edinburgh U. Press [for the International African Institute], 1991.
  • Nelson, Kristina. The Art of Reciting the Qur'an. 1st ed. U. of Texas Press, 1985.
  • Nettl, Bruno. The Radif of Persian Music. Champaign, Ill.: Elephant and Cat, 1992.
  • Neubauer, Eckhard. "Arabic Writings on Music: Eighth to Nineteenth Centuries." In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 6: The Middle East, ed. V. Danlelson et al., 363-86. Routledge, 2002.
  • Nieuwkerk, Karin van. "A Trade like Any Other": Female Singers and Dancers in Egypt. Austin: U. of Texas Press, 1995.
  • Nieuwkerk, Karin van. "'An Hour for God and an Hour for the Heart': Islam, Gender, and Female Entertainment in Egypt." In Music & Anthropology: Journal of Musical Anthropology of the Mediterranean: U. of Bologna, Italy, 1998.
  • Nieuwkerk, Karin van. "On Religion, Gender, and Performing: Female Performers and Repentance in Egypt." In Music and Gender: Perspectives from the Mediterranean, ed. Tullia Magrini, 267-86. Chicago: U. of Chicago Press, 2003.
  • O'Brien, Susan. "Gender, Islam, and Healing: The Spirit Possession Cult of bori and Muslim Hausa History in Northern Nigeria." Ph.D., U. of Wisconsin, Madison, 2000.
  • Olsen, Miriam Rovsing. "Contemporary Issues of Gender and Music." In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 6: The Middle East, ed. V. Danlelson et al., 299-307. Routledge, 2002.
  • Özer, Yetkin. "Crossing the Boundaries: The Akdeniz Scene and Mediterraneanness." In Mediterranean Mosaic: Popular Music and Global Sounds, ed. Goffredo Plastino, 199-220. Routledge, 2003.
  • Poche, Christian. "Zikr and Musicology." World of Music 20.1 (1978): 59-72.
  • Powers, Harold. "Classical Music, Cultural Roots, and Colonial Rule: An Indic Musicologist Looks at the Muslim World." Asian Music 12.1 (1980): 5-39.
  • Qureshi, Regula Burckhardt. Sufi Music of India and Pakistan: Sound, Context, and Meaning in Qawwali. 2nd ed. Chicago: U. of Chicago, 1995.
  • Racy, Ali Jihad. "Creativity and Ambiance: An Ecstatic Feedback Model from Arab Music." World of Music 33.3 (1991): 7-28.
  • Racy, Ali Jihad. "Historical Worldviews of Early Ethnomusicologists: An East-West Encounter in Cairo, 1932." In Ethnomusicology and Modern Music History, ed. Stephen Blum, Philip V. Bohlman and Daniel M. Neuman, 68-91. Urbana and Chicago: U. of Illinois Press, 1991.
  • Racy, Ali Jihad. "The Waslah: A Compound Form Principle in Egyptian Music." Arab Studies Quarterly 5 (1983): 396-404.
  • Racy, Ali Jihad. "Words and Music in Beirut: A Study of Attitudes." Ethnomusicology 30.3 (1986): 413-27.
  • Racy, Ali Jihad. Making Music in the Arab World: The Culture and Artistry of Tarab. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge U. Press, 2003.
  • Randel, Don Michael. "Al-Farabi and the Role of Arabic Music Theory in the Latin Middle Ages." Journal of the American Musicological Society 29.2 (1976): 173-88.
  • Rasmussen, S.J. Spirit Possession and Personhood among the Kel Ewey Tuareg. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Press, 1995.
  • Rausch, Margaret. Bodies, boundaries and spirit possession: Moroccan women and the revision of tradition: Bielefeld: Transcript; Piscataway, NJ: Distributed in North America by Transaction Publishers, 2000.
  • Regev, Motti. "Musica Mizrakhit, Israeli Rock, and National Culture in Israel." Popular Music 15.3 (1996): 275-84.
  • Regev, Motti. "Present Absentee: Arab Music in Israeli Culture." Public Culture 7 (1995): 433-45.
  • Reynolds, Dwight. "Musical Dimensions of an Arabic Oral Epic Tradition." Asian Music 26.1 (1994-1995): 53-94.
  • Reynolds, Dwight. "Musical 'Membrances of Medieval Muslim Spain." In Charting Memory: Recalling Medieval Spain, ed. Stacy Beckwith, 155-68. New York: Garland, 2000.
  • Reynolds, Dwight. Heroic Poets, Poetic Heroes: The Ethnography of Performance in an Arabic Oral Epic Tradition. Ithaca and London: Cornell U. Press, 1995.
  • Ribera, Julian. Music in Ancient Arabia and Spain: Being La Música De Las Cantigas. Translated by Eleanor Hague and Marion Leffingwell. Stanford U. Press, 1929.
  • Rippin, Andrew, ed. Approaches to the History of Interpretation of the Qur'an. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.
  • Robson, James, and George Henry Farmer, eds. Ancient Arabian Musical Instruments, as Described by Al-Muffaddal Ibn Salama (Ninth Century) in the Unique Istanbul Manuscript of the Kitab Al-Malahi in the Handwriting of Yaqut Al-Mustasimi (D. 1298). Glasgow: Civic Press, 1938.
  • Sakata, Hiromi Lorraine. "Hazara Women in Afghanistan: Innovators and Preservers of a Musical Tradition." In Women and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective, ed. Ellen Koskoff, 85-95. Urbana: U. of Illinois Press, 1989.
  • Sawa, George Dimitri. "The Status and Roles of Secular Musicians in the Kitab Al-Aghani (Book of Songs) of Abu Al-Faraj Al-Isbahani (D. 356 A.H./967 A.D.)." Asian Music 17.1 (1985): 69-82.
  • Sawa, George Dimitri. "The Survival of Some Aspects of Medieval Arabic Performance Practice." Ethnomusicology 25.1 (1981): 73-86. (gives nice intro to Farabi and Isbahani)
  • Sawa, George Dimitri. Music Performance Practice in the Early 'Abbasid Era 132-320 A.H./A.D. 750-932. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 1989.
  • Sawa, Suzanne Meyers. "Historical Issues of Gender and Music." In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music Volume 6: The Middle East, ed. V. Danlelson et al., 293-98. Routledge, 2002.
  • Schade-Poulsen, Marc. Men and Popular Music in Algeria: The Social Significance of Raï. Austin: U. of Texas, 1999.
  • Schuyler, Philip D. "Hearts and Minds: Three Attitudes toward Performance Practice and Music Theory in the Yemen Arab Republic." Ethnomusicology 34.1 (1990): 1-18.
  • Schuyler, Philip D. "Moroccan Andalusian Music." World of Music 20.1 (1978): 33-44.
  • Schuyler, Philip D. "Music and Meaning among the Gnawa Religious Brotherhood of Morocco." World of Music 23 (1981): 1-11.
  • Schuyler, Philip D. "The Rwais and the Zawia: Professional Musicians and the Rural Religious Elite in Southwestern Morocco." Asian Music 17.1 (1985): 114-31.
  • Schuyler, Philip. "Hearts and Minds: Three Attitudes toward Performance Practice and Music Theory in the Yemen Arab Republic." Ethnomusicology 34.1 (1990): 1-18.
  • Schuyler, Philip. "Joujouka/Jajouka/Zahjoukah: Moroccan Music and Euro-American Imagination." In Mass Mediations: New Approaches to Popular Culture in the Middle East, ed. Walter Armbrust, 146-60. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 2000.
  • Schuyler, Philip. "Music and Tradition in Yemen." Asian Music 22.1 (1990-1991): 51-71.
  • Schuyler, Philip. "Qat, Conversation, and Song: A Musical View of Yemeni Social Life." Yearbook for Traditional Music 29 (1997): 57-73.
  • Seroussi, Edwin. "'Mediterraneanism' in Israeli Music: An Idea and its Permutations." In Music & Anthropology: Journal of Musical Anthropology of the Mediterranean: U. of Bologna, Italy, 2002.
  • Seroussi, Edwin. "Yam Tikhoniyut: Transformations of Mediterraneanism in Israeli Music." In Mediterranean Mosaic: Popular Music and Global Sounds, ed. Goffredo Plastino, 179-98. Routledge, 2003.
  • Shay, Anthony. "The 6/8 Beat Goes On: Persian Popular Music from Bazm-e Qajariyyeh to Beverly Hills Garden Parties." In Mass Mediations: New Approaches to Popular Culture in the Middle East, ed. Walter Armbrust, 61-87. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 2000.
  • Shehadi, Fadlou. Philosophies of Music in Medieval Islam. Ed. A. J. Vanderjagt, Brill's Studies in Intellectual History. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1995.
  • Shiloah, Amnon. "The Meeting of Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Musical Cultures on the Iberian Peninsula (before 1492)." Acta Musicologica 63.1 (1991): 14-20.
  • Shiloah, Amnon. Music in the World of Islam: A Socio-Cultural Study. Detroit: Wayne State University, 1995 (Chapters 1-5).
  • Signell, Karl. Makam: Modal Practice in Turkish Art Music. Seattle, Wash.: Asian Music Publications, 1977.
  • Slyomovics, Susan. The Merchant of Art: An Egyptian Hilali Oral Epic Poet in Performance. Berkeley: U. of California Press, 1987.
  • Somer, Eli, and Meir Saadon. "Stambali: Dissociative Possession and Trance in a Tunisian Healing Dance." Transcultural Psychiatry 37.4 (2000).
  • Stokes, Martin. "'Beloved Istanbul': Realism and the Transnational Imaginary in Turkish Popular Culture." In Mass Mediations: New Approaches to Popular Culture in the Middle East, ed. Walter Armbrust, 224-42. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 2000.
  • Stokes, Martin. "Islam, the Turkish State, and Arabesk." Popular Music 11.2 (1992): 213-27.
  • Stokes, Martin. "The Tearful Public Sphere: Turkey's "Sun of Art," Zeki Müren." In Music and Gender: Perspectives from the Mediterranean, ed. Tullia Magrini, 307-28. Chicago: U. of Chicago Press, 2003.
  • Stokes, Martin. The Arabesk Debate: Music and Musicians in Modern Turkey. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.
  • Swedenburg, Ted. "Islamic Hip-Hop vs. Islamophobia: Aki Nawaz, Natacha Atlas, Akhenaton." In Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop outside the USA, ed. Tony Mitchell, 57-85. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan U. Press, 2001.
  • Swedenburg, Ted. "Sa`ida Sultan/Danna International: Transgender Pop and the Polysemiotics of Sex, Nation, and Ethnicity on the Israeli-Egyptian Border." In Mass Mediations: New Approaches to Popular Culture in the Middle East, ed. Walter Armbrust, 88-119. Berkeley and Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 2000.
  • Taqsim Nahawand revisited: the musicianship of Jihad Racy / Bruno Nettl and Ronald Riddle. (in Nettl’s edited volume on improvisation)
  • Touma, Habib Hassan. The Music of the Arabs. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus, 1995.
  • Tremearne, Arthur John Newman. The Ban of the Bori: Demons and Demon-dancing in West and North Africa, Cass Library of African Studies. London: Frank Cass, 1968 [1914]. Reprint, 1st.
  • Virolle, Marie. "Representations and Female Roles in the Rai Song." In Music and Gender: Perspectives from the Mediterranean, ed. Tullia Magrini, 215-32. Chicago: U. of Chicago Press, 2003.
  • Virolle, Marie. "The Role of Women in Raï Music." In Music & Anthropology: Journal of Musical Anthropology of the Mediterranean: U. of Bologna, Italy, 1999.
  • Virolle, Marie. La chanson raï: de l'Algérie profonde à la scène internationale. Paris: Karthala, 1995.
  • Westermarck, Edward. Ritual and Belief in Morocco. 2 vols. London: MacMillan., 1926.
  • Wright, Owen. Demetrius Cantemir: The Collection of Notations. SOAS, 1992-2000.
  • Wright, Owen. The Modal System of Arab and Persian Music A.D.: 1250-1300. London: Oxford U. Press, 1978.
  • Wright, Owen. Words without Songs: A Musicological Study of an Early Ottoman Anthology and Its Precursors. SOAS, 1992.
  • Zonis, Ella (ed.). Classical Music of Iran: Dastgah Systems. Smithsonian Folkways, 1991.
  • Zonis, Ella. Classical Persian Music: An Introduction. Cambridge: Harvard U. Press, 1973.
  • Zuhur, Sherifa. "Asmahan: Arab Musical Performance and Musicianship under the Myth." In Images of Enchantment: Visual and Performing Arts of the Middle East, ed. Sherifa Zuhur, 81-108. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1998.
  • Zuhur, Sherifa. Asmahan's secrets: woman, war and song. London: Saqi, 2001.