Gender and Social Development
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Gender and social development are important spheres of academic study and analysis, and also of development and poverty reduction policy. Gender and social relations within and between different groups of people are critical to people’s wellbeing and to the processes by which people’s well-being changes. They are both critical determinants of people’s ability to influence, participate in and benefit from social, economic, and material change, as well as intrinsic to people’s sense of identity.
This module examines gender and social development from both an analytical and a practical perspective. It explores the historical roots of academic and policy interest in these matters and considers why social development and gender matter. It examines different ways of analysing social and gender relations, and the relationship between academic and policy work in this field. It then investigates current thinking and concerns relating to the practice of social development and to the promotion of gender equality and women’s empowerment, and describes tools and frameworks to inform policy making and practice.
The module is aimed at students and researchers from the academic world and at development practitioners – from government departments, international development agencies or non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – who work to promote development and poverty reduction. The module aims to assist students to understand how social relations, and particularly gender relations, affect people; how they can be analysed; and how they have influenced development policy and practices and the outcomes of development interventions. The module also aims to assist students to develop their practical skills in addressing gender and social development in analysis and in policy design and implementation.
Objectives and learning outcomes of the course
On successful completion of the module students will be able:
- To understand the importance of social development, and particularly gender relations, in development and poverty reduction processes, and different ways in which these have been addressed in development policy and practice.
- To understand critical concepts and theories regarding social and gender relations and change.
- To critique aid and development policies from social development and gender relations perspectives.
- To use specific tools for social and gender analysis in the design, implementation and evaluation of development policies and projects.
- To understand the challenges facing gender and social development in specific aid and development situations, policies and interventions.
Scope and syllabus
The course is broadly structured in three parts. The first three units explore gender inequality and poverty and introduce the scope and history of gender and social development. They distinguish gender and social development research and policy, and look at their respective histories and the relationship between them. Units 4 to 6 explore critical concepts and theories regarding social and gender relations and change. The final four units focus more on issues and tools in applying social and gender analysis to development policy and practice. The material in the three parts is, however, closely related.
Part I: The first unit sets the scene for the course with an examination of broad patterns of inequality, with particular attention to poverty and gender, and of how these characterise different developing and developed countries and regions. This leads on to considerations of how well-being is theorised in the context of development and of the different ways in which inequality and related social needs have been interpreted. Units 2 and 3 focus respectively on social development and women’s interests/gender equality. They explore historical origins, changing perspectives, and current debates on incorporating these issues into development policy and planning
Part II: Unit 4 explores social and gender differentiation at the micro level, looking at the conceptualisation of categories of social and gender difference, of household forms and of intra-household relations. It also examines gender and social development perspectives on livelihoods and community analysis. Unit 5 is concerned with how specific forms of social and gender discrimination and exclusion persist over time, through institutionalisation in the formal and informal structures of society. Unit 6 then examines how social and gender relations change, considering the role played by social structures and individual agency, individual and collective power and empowerment, and development interventions.
Part III: Unit 7 summarises and critiques from a social development and gender relations perspective international development policies designed to increase the impact of aid on poverty reduction. Unit 8 introduces some of the social and gender analytical tools and processes used in the context of development policies and projects. Unit 9 looks at the concept of participation, and the ways this has been reinvented in the current aid environment to focus on rights and citizenship. Unit 10 looks at development institutions and organisations, considering the ways in which they reflect in their own staffing and culture the inequalities present in wider society. It looks at the ways social development and gender equality advocates have sought to promote attention to equality issues in the work of the organisation as well as internally.