International Journal of Jaina Studies (IJJS) Archive 2007
Subject Index of the Inventory of the Stories in N. Balbir's Āvaśyaka Studien
Author: Willem B. Bollée
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 3, No. 1 (2007) 1-23
Balbir’s Āvaśyaka-Studien, Introduction Générale et Traduction is a valuable manual on a most important text of the Śvetāmbara Jains. In order to make this book usable a necessary subject index was made of it.
A Note on the Pāsa Traditions in the Universal History of the Digambaras and Śvetâmbaras
Author: Willem B. Bollée
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 3, No. 2 (2007) 1-60
Jain studies have so far concentrated on Śvetāmbara texts because those of the Digambaras were hardly available. The late professor Upadhye, to whom this contribution is dedicated, has done much to change this disparity which enabled the present author to edit, translate and comment from an important 9th century text, Guṇabhadra’s Mahāpurāṇa, a Universal History, the life of the Jina Pāsa who is popular in both Jain churches.
Blind Faith according to the Jainas: The Yama Case
Author: Jean-Pierre Osier
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 3, No. 3 (2007) 1-12
A Short History of Jaina Law
Author: Peter Flügel
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 3, No. 4 (2007) 1-15
The nineteenth century English neologism ‘Jaina law’ is a product of colonial legal intervention in India from 1772 onwards. 'Jaina law' suggests uniformity where in reality there is a plurality of scriptures, ethical and legal codes, and customs of sect, caste, family and region. The contested semantics of the term reflect alternative attempts by the agents of the modern Indian legal system and by Jain reformers to restate traditional Jain concepts. Four interpretations of the modern term 'Jaina law' can be distinguished: (i) 'Jaina law' in the widest sense signifies the doctrine and practice of jaina dharma, or Jaina ‘religion’. (ii) In a more specific sense it points to the totality of conventions (vyavahāra) and law codes (vyavasthā) in Jaina monastic and lay traditions. Sanskrit vyavasthā and its Arabic and Urdu equivalent qānūn both designate a specific code of law or legal opinion/decision, whereas Sanskrit dharma can mean religion, morality, custom and law. (iii) The modern Indian legal system is primarily concerned with the 'personal law' of the Jaina laity. In Anglo-Indian case law, the term 'Jaina law' was used both as a designation for 'Jain scriptures' (śāstra) on personal law, and for the unwritten 'customary laws' of the Jains, that is the social norms of Jain castes (jāti) and clans (gotra). (iv) In 1955/6 Jaina personal law was submerged under the statutory 'Hindu Code', and is now only indirectly recognised by the legal system in the form of residual Jain 'customs' to be proved in court. The article traces the process in modern Indian legal history of narrowing the semantic range of the modern term 'Jaina law' from 'Jain scriptures' down to 'Jain personal law' and finally 'Jain custom', which may lead not only in the official obliteration of Jaina legal culture, which continues to thrive outside the formal legal system in monastic law, ethics and custom, but also of Jaina 'religion'.
Digambara Attitudes to the Svetambara Canon
Author: Fujinaga Sin
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 3, No. 5 (2007) 1-11
Pūjyapāda is the first Digambara philosopher that wrote a commentary on the Tattvārthasūtra. In that commentary titled as Sarvārthasiddhi he quotes many sentences from many works. Their analysis leads to the conclusion that Pūjyapāda may have had some tendency to harmonize Digambara and Śvetāmbara concepts.
The Original Panhavayarana Prasnavyakarana Discovered
Author: Diwakar Acharya
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 3, No. 6 (2007) 1-10
This paper reports the author's discovery of the original Paṇhavāyaraṇa/ Praśnavyākaraṇa together with a fairly old Sanskrit commentary. It describes the unique palm-leaf manuscript and its paper transcript both preserved in the National Archives of Nepal. The original text of the Praśnavyākaraṇa was lost at some point in history and another entirely different text was substituted in the place of the original aṅgasūtra. The version of the Praśnavyākaraṇa in circulation deals with the five sins and the consequences corresponding to them but a number of Jaina canonical texts indicate that the original Praśnavyākaraṇa should mostly deal with divination. Exactly this is the content of the Praśnavyākaraṇa discovered in Nepal. This paper discusses all these issues, narrates the description of the Praśnavyākaraṇa found in Jaina canonical texts, presents a list of all sections of the newly found text, and also reflects on the identity of the Sanskrit commentator Devanandi.