International Journal of Jaina Studies (IJJS) Archive 2010
Visual and Conceptual Links Between Jaina Cosmological, Mythological and Ritual instruments
Author: Julia A. B. Hegewald
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 6, No. 1 (2010) 1-20
In Defence of Icons in Three Languages - The Iconophilic Writings of Yaśovijaya
Author: John E. Cort
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 6, No. 2 (2010) 1-45
The seventeenth century was a time of great sectarian change and controversy among the Śvetāmbara Jains of western India. Among the most widely-disputed subjects was the status and orthodoxy of Jina icons and their worship. During this period the great Mūrtipūjaka Tapā Gaccha monk and intellectual Yaśovijaya (1624-1688) wrote a number of texts in Sanskrit, Prakrit and Gujarati that in whole or in part advanced a defense of icons. This article summarizes eight texts (two in Sanskrit, one in Prakrit, and five in Gujarati) devoted solely to this subject, and then analyzes major themes that emerge in the texts. Yaśovijaya employed four arguments in defense of icons. (1) Icons are legitimated by the canonical hermeneutic of nikṣepa, or applying multiple viewpoints to any topic under investigation. (2) The worship of icons does not contravene the central Jain ethic of ahiṃsā or non-harm. (3) The worship of icons is supported by a careful reading of both the Śvetāmbara scriptures and their commentaries. (4) Finally, the study of Jain history shows clear evidence of the long-standing use of Jina icons. Yaśovijaya combined his deep knowledge of Jain literature with his skill as a logician and debater to articulate this “theology of the icon” that has remained an important element in Tapā Gaccha ideology until the present. This investigation of Yaśovijaya’s iconophilic writings demonstrates the centrality of icons to Jain ritual, devotional and intellectual culture.
Review of Die Erlösunglehre der Jainas
Author: Willem B. Bollée
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 6, No. 3 (2010) 1-4
The article is a review of Adelheid Mette’s second, substantially enlarged, edition of her work on the doctrine of the Jains, Durch Entsagung zum Heil (1991), on the basis of German translations from the main texts and commentaries.
Demarcating Sacred Space: The Jina Images at Kalugumalai
Author: Lisa N. Owen
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 6, No. 4 (2010) 1-28
In the southern districts of Tamil Nadu, there are a number of medieval Jain sites that feature large boulders or outcrops of stone that are carved with images of Jinas and Jain deities. The relief carvings that constitute these sites typically span the entire surface of the boulder and are often accompanied by donative inscriptions. Given the large number of these reliefs and the fact that they are independent donations, most art historians examine them in an effort to track changes in Jain iconography and style. This approach, however, tends to deny the efficacy of these images when viewed collectively. More importantly, it denies the ways that these images demarcate Jain notions of sacred space. In this paper, I examine the 9th-10th century site of Kalugumalai primarily as an expression of sacred space rather than as a repository of individual carvings or inscriptions. These images clearly function collectively to identify the boulder and its surrounding environs as a place sacred to Jains and as a place worthy of worship. By examining the nature of the "site" rather than examining individual sculptures we can come to a better understanding of how such places functioned in their medieval context.
Links Between Sanskrit and Muslim Science in Jaina Astronomical Works
Author: Kim Plofker
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 6, No. 5 (2010) 1-13
In the cross-fertilization between Islamic and traditional Indian exact sciences that took place in the courts of Hindu and Muslim rulers in second-millennium India, Jaina intermediaries played a significant part. Some important scientific ideas, such as the principles of the Islamic astrolabe and conversion calculations for the Islamic calendar, were first explained to Indian audiences in the works of Jaina authors. Muslim audiences, in their turn, received Indian astrological ideas attributed to an authority known only as "Jina". What factors placed the small minority of Jaina scholars at the center of these early efforts at scientific transmission? And what role did they play in the more familiar, and often more dramatic, encounters between Hindu and Muslim scientific views in subsequent centuries? The article argues that compared to its Hindu-majority counterpart, the Jaina scientific tradition was in some ways more receptive to, and simultaneously more insulated from, the new and foreign ideas of early modern Indo-Islamic science.
God, The Soul And The Creatrix: Haribhadra Sūri On Nyāya And Sāṃkhya
Author: Frank Van Den Bossche
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 6, No. 6 (2010) 1-49