International Journal of Jaina Studies (IJJS) Archive 2011
Pūrṇabhadra’s Pañcatantra: Jaina Tales Or Brahmanical Outsourcing?
Author: McComas Taylor
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 7, No. 1 (2011) 1-17
For over a hundred years, it has been assumed that the collection of Sanskrit narrative fables known as Pūrṇabhadra’s Pañcatantra was a Jaina text. For the last thirty years or so, one could assume that because the redactor inhabited a specific epistemic community, the Jaina ‘thought-world’, that this was not only obvious, but inevitable. This paper challenges both these assumptions, and will set out to demonstrate that the Pūrṇabhadra’s Pañcatantra is a product of a Brahminical, Hindu, episteme, and that the redactor, rather than being a trapped in the imaginary of Jaina society draw on the epistemic traditions of his choice. This will contribute to our understanding of pre-modern literary production, the Jaina thought-world and the workings of epistemic communities more generally. This article demonstrates that a Jaina is capable of producing a non-Jaina text. This might seem obvious, but it challenges our assumptions about the production of discourse in a given epistemic community.
Temples And Patrons The Nineteenth-Century Temple Of Motīśāh At Śatruñjaya
Author: Hawon Ku
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 7, No. 2 (2011) 1-22
Śatruñjaya, located in Gujarat, India, is one of the most significant pilgrimage sites for Śvetāmbara Jains, who comprise the majority of Jains in western India. However, only during the 19th century the site acquired its current form, with more than 150 temples remaining on the site. The concentrated patronage during this period was due to a rise in wealth and the conditions of the Jain merchant patrons, in which the harvest of merit was the most important cause. However, following a series of legal cases surrounding the ownership of the site, the forms of patronage as well as the architectural styles of the temples reverted to a more rigid style based on traditional manuals and 13th-century Jain temple architecture. In this article I argue that these changes of Śatruñjaya, into an exceptional symbol of the Śvetāmbara Mūrtipūjāka community, were brought by a rise of a modern Jain identity, stemming from several reasons, including the series of legal cases and Western writings on the site.
The Significance Of Adhyavasāya In Jain Karma Theory
Author: Kristi L. Wiley
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 7, No. 3 (2011) 1-26
Various technical terms associated with the binding of karmic matter found in the Tattvārthasūtra have been incorporated into discussions of karma theory in survey texts on Jainism. According to these texts, the influx (āsrava) of karma is brought about by activity (yoga). It is bound with the soul for a certain period of time when the soul is under the influence of passions (kaṣāya). The variety (prakṛti) and the quantity (pradeśa) of karmic matter are determined by yoga while its duration (sthiti) and intensity (anubhāga/anubhāva) are determined by kaṣāyas. However, in some sources, another term, adhyavasāya, is used in association with karmic bondage. This paper examines the use of adhyavasāya in various karma texts of the Śvetāmbara and Digambara sectarian traditions, including the Karmagranthas, Gommaṭasāra, and Ṣaṭkhaṇḍāgama, and discusses its significance in karmic bondage.
Burial Ad Sanctos at Jaina Sites in India
Author: Peter Flügel
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 7, No. 4 (2011) 1-37
The analysis of the process of gradual integration of religious artefacts into the originally anti-iconic protestant Jaina traditions, starting with relics of renowned saints, and the evolution of pilgrimage centres from the early nineteenth century onwards shows that it followed the same logic as proposed by the theory of aniconism for the development of anthropomorphic images in ancient India: relics, stūpas, aniconic representations, anthropomorphic iconoplastic representations. It is argued in this article that it is unlikely that extant aniconic Jaina religious art from ancient India evolved along similar lines for at least four reasons: The absence of (1) doctrinal aniconism in early Jainism, (2) of a notable cult of the relics of the Jina, (3) of evidence for Jaina stūpas antedating anthropomorphic miniature reliefs, and (4) of sharply demarcated Jaina sectarian traditions before the Digambara-Śvetambara split. The reputedly oldest iconographic evidence from Mathurā rather suggests a parallel evolution of iconic and aniconic representations; with footprint/foot-images (caraṇa-pādukā) as a relatively late addition to the vocabulary of aniconic Jaina art. The apocryphal development of aniconic iconography in protestant Jaina traditions with progressive emphasis on the individual identity of renowned gurus and gurunīs of particular monastic traditions seems to replicate earlier developments in the iconic traditions which must have started in the early medieval period. The particular evolutionary sequence and selectivity of aniconic Jaina iconography with its characteristic exegetical impediments against the worship of Jina images and increasing emphasis on the practice of burial ad sanctos and cities of the dead however represents a genuine novelty not only in the history of Jainism but in Indian religious culture as a whole.