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Centre of Jaina Studies

International Journal of Jaina Studies (IJJS) Archive 2012

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Shades of Enlightenment: A Jain Tantric Diagram and the Colours of the Tīrthaṅkaras

Author: Ellen Gough
Year: 2012
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 8, No. 1 (2012) 1-47

Abstract

While scholarship has paid little attention to Śaiva/Śākta and Jain interactions in the medieval period, Śaivas seem to have exerted great influence on Jain ritual culture, bringing lasting changes to Jain worship practices. This article discusses the historical development of two aspects of Jain ritual that may have been influenced by Śākta understandings ­­– a tantric diagram called the Ṛṣimaṇḍala, and the different colours in which the twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras are portrayed. Today, members of the two main sects of Jainism, Digambaras and Śvetāmbaras, disagree on the colours of twotīrthaṅkaras, Malli and Supārśva. As this article shows, the origins of this dispute seem to be related to medieval Śākta influence on the Śvetāmbara positioning of Malli in the multi-coloured seed-syllable hrīṃ at the center of the Ṛṣimaṇḍala.

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The Temple of Saṅghī Jhūṅthārāmjī "Jain on the Outside – Hindu Inside"
Author: Elena Karatchkova
Year: 2012
International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online) Vol. 8, No. 2 (2012) 1-25
Abstract

This paper analyzes an oral tradition (recorded during field research), which explains the circumstances of religious conversion of a temple in Āmber – the former capital of Jaipur kingdom in Rājasthān. The Śaiva temple, today referred to locally as “Saṅghī Jhūṅthārāmjī kā mandir”, was originally the Jain temple of Vimalnāth. It was built in 1657 A.D. by Mohan Dās – the Jain Chief Minister at the court of the Rājpūt ruler of  Āmber Rājā Jai Singh I (1621—1667). In this paper I compare the content of the recorded narrative about the temple with historical circumstances of its conversion. Although the contemporary oral tradition contradicts historical facts, it reveals important social and cultural meanings, characteristic of Rājasthān.

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