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Department of Politics and International Studies

Brig. Gen. Frank Rusagara

MA International Security Studies (University of Nairobi, Kenya), B.Com Degree, (Makerere University, Uganda)


Frank Rusagara
Brig. Gen. Frank Rusagara
Email address:
Thesis title:
Post Genocide Rwanda Military Intergration (MI): The case Study of Ingando
Internal Supervisors


Brigadier General Frank Rusagara is the Defence Advisor at the Rwanda High Commission in London, also accredited to Berne/Switzerland, Stockholm/Sweden, Denmark and other Nordic countries.

He is a Military Historian and former Director of the Rwanda Defence Forces Department of Information, Documentation and Military History.

General Rusagara was previously the G1 – General Staff Officer in Charge of Personnel and Administration, Director of Finance, Secretary General (Permanent Secretary) of the Ministry of Defence, President of the Rwanda Military Court and Commandant of the Rwanda Military Academy, Nyakinama.

He is currently Chairman of the Rwanda Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS), and the Rwandan Chapter of the Africa Centre for Strategic Studies (ACSS).

Born in Rwanda, he lived, studied and worked in Uganda and Kenya.

He holds an MA in International Security Studies from the University of Nairobi, Kenya and a B.Com Degree from Makerere University, Kampala - Uganda.

He was involved in the struggle for the liberation of Rwanda, and, after 1994, held several portfolios in policy formulation and implementation as a Senior Officer of the Government of Rwanda in the Ministry of Defence.

He is the author of the book; Resilience of a Nation: A History of the Military in Rwanda.

He is married to Christine K. Rusagara with 2 daughters and 3 sons.

PhD Research

The aftermath of the 1994 genocide left more than one million people dead and an entire population displaced internally or having fled as refugees.

It also entailed a divided society with a collapsed socio-economic infrastructure.  The military of Rwanda and ex-militia had to be united and integrated into the broader Rwandan society.

This meant that government initiatives had to be devised to prevent the resurgence of ethnic conflict in the country. Hence the Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) devised the programme of Ingando as a vehicle for integration and re-integration of ex-FAR (ex-military forces) and militia into the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA).

According to the ruling party the RPF, the participation in Ingando recognizes the dignity and humanity of the participants as equal Rwandans irrespective of their roles in the Rwandan conflict. Hence RPF argues that Ingando forms the starting point to conflict resolution.

However, theorists have criticized Ingando as a RPF propaganda tool not aimed at integrating the military and uniting the broader Rwandan society.  

This dissertation, will test whether the RPF government initiative of Ingando is viable MI programme by using semi structured interviews with relevant role players and government archives.

PhD Publications

Rusagara, Frank. 2009. Resilience of a Nation: A history of the Military in Rwanda. Fountain Publishers.

Rusagara, Frank. 2005. "Gacaca as a Reconciliation and Nation-building Strategy in Post-genocide Rwanda". The African Centre for the Construction Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD).

Rusagara, Frank. 2008. "The Nature of Conflict in Africa towards 2020" in South African Army Vision. Institute for Strategic Studies (ISS)  

Rusagara, Frank. 2011. "Unconventional Challenges and NonTraditional Roles for Armed Forces: The case for Rwanda" in The Prism Journal 3 No: 1 National Defence University Press for Complex Operations.