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Department of History

Mr Geoffrey Pakiam

BA Social and Political Sciences (Cantab), MSc Development Studies (SOAS, University of London)


Geoffrey Kevin Pakiam
Mr Geoffrey Pakiam
Email address:
Thesis title:
Smallholder Involvement in Tree Crops, with Special Reference to Oil and Coconut Palms in Johor, c. 1929-1962
Year of Study:
Year 1
Internal Supervisors

PhD Research

Smallholders had to grapple with a variety of challenges and opportunities when cultivating oil and coconut palms in the state of Johor. I look at the dilemmas they faced from the onset of the Great Depression to the early years of Independence. Their circumstances were largely shaped by their own backgrounds, the different characteristics of each crop, international markets, government policies, estates, traders, and available land. By examining smallholder responses to these circumstances over time, I aim to provide a detailed account of their activity in conjunction with two important tree crops which have been relatively neglected in historical scholarship on Southeast Asia so far.


  • Modern Economic History of Southeast Asia
  • Smallholders
  • Tree crops, Environmental Change, Non-Human Primates