Unit 1 | Unit 2 | Unit 3 | Unit 4 | Unit 5 | Unit 6 | Unit 7 | Unit 8 | Unit 9 | Unit 10                
1.0 What is research?
2.0 Research for policy and decision-making
3.0 From research idea to researchable problem
4.0 Formulating research questions, hypotheses
      and objectives

- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Weblinks and Portals
- Multimedia
1.1 Research defined
1.2 Research as a process
1.3 Generalised summary of the research process
1.4 What makes research scientific?


Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Why research? The role of information
2.2 Research and decision-making




Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Where do research ideas come from
3.2 Formulating the research problem
3.3 So how do we get from the research problem to researchable questions?



Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Research questions
4.2 Research hypotheses
4.3 Research objective(s)
4.4 Examples of research statements


Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
- Summary
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.0 Approaches to research
2.0 Introduction to research design
3.0 Research designs and strategies
4.0 Other strategic and design considerations

- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Multimedia

- Summary
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 Research design
1.2 Building theory
1.3 Choosing an approach



Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Research design
2.2 Basic types of design
2.3 Research design to research strategy



Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Experiments
3.2 Experimental principles
3.3 Contrasting experiments and other designs
3.4 Surveys
3.5 Case study
3.6 Selecting a strategy
Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Combining quantitative and qualitative methods
4.2 Rapid methods
4.3 Action research and participatory methods



Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 What is measurement?
2.0 Selecting variables to represent concepts
3.0 Choosing measures for variable(s)
4.0 Measuring instruments

- Key Readings
- References
- Weblinks and Portals
- Summary
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 Measurement
1.2 Measurement issues




Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Operationalising the research hypothesis
2.2 Finding good variables(s)




Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 So how do we decide on measures for variables?
3.2 Data types
3.3 Levels or scales of measurement
3.4 Data classification and why it matters
3.5 Derived variables

Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Devising/choosing the measuring instrument
4.2 The decision tree: summarising the decisions in measurement




Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 Introduction to sampling
2.0 Sources of error in sampling and measurement
3.0 Sampling methods
4.0 How do we choose our sample size?

- Key Readings
- References
- Weblinks and Portals
- Summary
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 What is sampling?
1.2 Sampling process
1.3 What makes a good sample?
1.4 Sampling method types


Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Sampling error
2.2 Non-sampling errors
2.3 Accuracy, precision, and bias



Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Formal probability sampling
3.2 Informal non-probability sampling




Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Sample size considerations
4.2 Determination of sample size for estimating a mean from SRS
4.3 Statistical pwer
4.4 Determination of sample size for hypothesis testing


Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 Introduction to data collection
2.0 Observation techniques
3.0 Asking questions
4.0 Recording data
5.0 Data management and data standards
- Key Readings
- References
- Weblinks and Portals
- Summary
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 Data collection techniques
1.2 Date sources: primary and secondary
1.3 Data collection pathways
1.4 Who should observe and who should record data?


Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Introduction
2.2 When should observation and recording take place?
2.2 Comparability and accuracy




Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Interview context
3.3 Interview content
3.4 Conducting group interviews (focus groups)


Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Overview
4.2 Structured data




Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
5.1 Data management
5.2 Data standards
5.3 Introduction to data processing and data checking



Section 5 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 The Literature review
2.0 Using secondary data
3.0 Sources of secondary data
4.0 Documents
- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Weblinks and Portals
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Purpose of literature review
1.3 Conducting a search
1.4 Writing a critical review
1.5 Referencing and citation

Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Why use secondary data?
2.3 Uses of secondary data in research
2.4 Problems with secondary data


Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Data sets
3.3 Evaluating secondary data sets
3.4 The census
3.5 Example of the use of secondary data sets in original research

Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Using documents
4.2 Using documents in policy research
4.3 Content analysis



Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
- Summary
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.0 Introduction to data analysis
2.0 Descriptive statistics I
3.0 Probability distributions
4.0 Descriptive statistics II: sampling distibutions,
      standard error & confidence intervals

5.0 Exploratory data analysis in SPSS
- Key Readings
- References
- Weblinks and Portals
1.1 The need for data analysis
1.2 Analysis pathways and types of statistics
1.3 Hypothesis testing
1.4 Probabiliy and hypothesis testing
1.5 Using computers: data entry and storage

Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Frequency distributions
2.2 Measures of central tendency (statistics of location)
2.3 Measures of spread or variability in the data



Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Probability distributions: population models
3.2 The normal distribution
3.3 The standardised normal curve - z
3.4 t-distribution
3.5 Discontinuous distributions

Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Sampling distributions
4.2 Sampling distribution of the mean and standard error
4.3 Confidence intervals



Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
5.1 EDA and graphical presentational techniques
5.2 Graphical presentation
5.3 EDA in SPSS
5.4 Do my data follow a normal distribution?
5.5 Case study: exploring data using SPSS
5.6 Graphically displaying confidence intervals
Section 5 Self Assessment Questions
- Summary
- Symbols
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.0 Choosing the statistical test
2.0 Tests for difference (continuous data): one-sample
3.0 Tests for difference (continuous data): two samples
4.0 Simple tests for categorical data
- Key Readings
- References
- Weblinks and Portals
1.1 The Basics
1.2 Main types of statistical tests
1.3 Parametric and non-parametric tests compared
1.4 Tests for homogeneity of variance
1.5 What if my data do not meet the parametric test assumptions?
1.6 Hypothesis testing and the dicision rule procedure
Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 The Student's or independent samples t test (parametric)
2.2 One-sample testing (parametric)




Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Two independent samples (parametric): independant t test
3.2 Two independent samples, unequal variance (parametric):
      independent t test

3.3 Two independent samples (non-parametric): Mann-Whitney U-test
3.4 Paired samples (parametric): paired samples t test
3.5 Data transformation example
3.6 Paired samples (non-parametric): Wilcoxon signed rank test
Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Comparing two categorical variables: chi-square contingency test
4.2 Fit to a specified distribution: chi-squared goodness-of-fit test




Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
- Summary
- Symbols
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.0 Approaches to qualitative data analysis
2.0 Processing qualitative data
3.0 Categorising your data
4.0 Building your analysis
- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Weblinks and Portals
- Multimedia
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Rigour in qualitative analysis
1.3 Common procedures in qualitative data analysis
1.4 Dominant approaches to analysis


Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Primary data in qualitative research
2.2 Data processing




Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Reading and annotating
3.2 Creating categories
3.3 Identifying codes
3.4 Organising codes


Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Making links
4.2 Tools for exploring linkages
4.3 Writing-up
4.4 Validity and reliability


Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
- Summary
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.0 Preparing a research proposal
2.0 Ethical issues in research
3.0 Dissemination of research findings
4.0 Writing reports
- Key Readings
- Additional Resources
- References
- Weblinks and Portals
- Multimedia
- Summary
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 What is a research proposal?
1.2 Proposal structure and content




Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Principles of ethical research
2.2 Informed consent
2.3 Confidentiality
2.4 Professional responsibilities
2.5 Addressing ethical issues in a proposal

Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 The importance of dissemination
3.2 Dissemination as part of the research process




Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Report structure
4.2 Report content
4.3 General guidance
4.4 Data presentation
4.5 A final note on writing

Section 4 Self Assessment Questions