Unit 1 | Unit 2 | Unit 3 | Unit 4 | Unit 5 | Unit 6 | Unit 7 | Unit 8 | Unit 9 | Unit 10                
1.0 Scope of international environmental law
2.0 Development of international environmental law
3.0 Sources of international environmental law
- Key Readings
- References
- Treaties, Instruments & Cases
- Multimedia
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 Definition
1.2 Multidisciplinary nature
1.3 Why do we need international environmental law?



Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Pre-1945 period
2.2 1945-1972
2.3 The period 1972-1992
2.4 The Road from Rio: Post-1992 and the WSSD


Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 International Conventions expressly recognised
3.2 International custom accepted as law
3.3 General principles of law recognised by civilised nations
3.4 Teachings of most qualified publicists


Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 Governance and institutional framework
2.0 Principle of state sovereignty
3.0 Preventative principle
4.0 Co-operative principle
5.0 Sustainable development
6.0 Precautionary principle
7.0 Polluter pays principle
8.0 Common but differentiated responsibility
- Key Readings
- References
- Treaties, Instruments & Cases
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 The 'governance' of multilateral agreements
1.2 The United Nations
1.3 The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
1.4 The World Bank
1.5 Global Environment Facility
1.6 The contribution of NGOs to international environmental law
Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Sovereignty and natural resources
2.2 Pacific Fur Seal Arbitration
2.3 Tuna-Dolphin case
2.4 Shrimp-Turtle case
2.5 Principle of good neighbourliness & duty to avoid trans-national damage

Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
5.1 Intergenerational equity
5.2 Sustainable use of natural resources
5.3 Equitable use of natural resources
5.4 Integration


6.1 Treaty-based damage threshold
6.2 Jurisprudential threshold




1.0 Human rights and international environmental law
2.0 Procedural rights and instruments
3.0 Environmental impact assessments

- Key Readings
- Further Reading
- References
- Treaties, Instruments & Cases
- Multimedia
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 The need for human rights
1.2 Two principal human rights international covenants
1.3 Adoption of human environmental rights?



Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 A duty to inform
2.2 Developments since the Stockholm Conference
2.3 Access to environmental information
2.4 Participation endorsed by the EU
2.5 The Aarhus Convention

Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 What is an EIA?
3.2 1991 Espoo Convention
3.3 Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)
3.4 Landmark court cases
3.5 Conclusion

Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 International environmental governance
2.0 International enforcement mechanisms
3.0 Mechanisms of international dispute resolution
4.0 Liability and compensation

- Key Readings
- References
- Treaties, Instruments & Cases
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 The question of compliance
1.2 Changing domestic law
1.3 Compliance in domestic law
1.4 Reporting


Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Scope of member state enforcement
2.2 Treaty remedies
2.3 Alternative enforcement mechanisms



Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 The traditional procedures for dispute resolution





Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 General principles of state liability
4.2 State liability for environmenal damage
4.3 Treaties addressing state liability
4.4 Alternatives to state liability - civil liability regimes


Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Historical overview
3.0 Atmospheric pollution
4.0 Ozone depletion
5.0 Climate change
- Key Readings
- References
- Treaties, Instruments & Cases
- Multimedia
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
5.1 1992 The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
5.2 The 1997 Kyoto Protocol




Section 5 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 From smog to acid rain: air pollution in the United Kingdom and Europe
2.2 The Trail Smelter Case




Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 1979 Geneva Convenion on Long-Range Transboundary ...
3.2 1985 Helsinki Protocol on Reduction of Sulphur Emissions by at least 30%
3.3 1988 Sofia Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides
3.4 1991 Geneva Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of ...
3.5 1994 Oslo Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions
3.6 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals
3.7 1998 Aahus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
3.8 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and ...
3.9 Conclusions
Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 The 1985 Vienna Convention
4.2 The 1987 Montreal Protocol
4.3 Conclusions on the ozone regime



Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 Introduction to the laws of the sea
2.0 Protection of the oceans and seas
3.0 Protection of marine life
- Key Readings
- References
- Treaties, Instruments & Cases
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts






Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Regional marine environmental treaties
2.2 Pollution from vessels
2.3 Pollution by dumping
2.4 Pollution from land-based sources
2.5 Conclusion

Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 UNCLOS 1982
3.2 Straddling Stocks Agreement
3.3 Marine mammals



Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Progress of the law of international watercourses
3.0 The human right to have water
- Key Readings
- References
- Treaties, Instruments & Cases
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts






Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Major cases concerning international watercourses





Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 The problem of water scarcity
3.2 An ancient right and obligation
3.3 General Comment No 15 (2002) - the right to water



Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 International regulation of hazardous wastes
2.0 International regulation of hazardous chemicals
       and persistent pollutants

3.0 Nuclear energy
- Key Readings
- Further Reading
- References
- Treaties, Instruments & Cases
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 The challenge of hazardous waste
1.2 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements
      of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal

1.3 The 1991 Bamako Convention
1.4 Development issues relating to waste management
1.5 Principles for hazardous waste management
Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 1998 Rotterdam Convention on prior informed consent
2.2 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
2.3 Conclusion: effectiveness of the three conventions?



Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Nuclear accidents
3.2 International regulation of nuclear energy
3.3 The 1986 convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident
3.4 Radioactive waste


Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Protection of specific terrestrial habitats
3.0 Protection of species (CITES) and Bonn Convention
4.0 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
- Key Readings
- References
- Treaties, Instruments & Cases
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 Habitat protection through protected areas
1.2 Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cutural
      and Natural Heritage (WHC)




Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries
      Experiencing Serious Drought

2.2 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance
2.3 Forest protections?
2.4 International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA)

Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Objective of CITES
3.2 Implementation
3.3 Appendix I
3.4 Appendices II and III
3.5 Institutions
3.6 Convention on Migratory Species (Bonn Convention)
Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Status
4.2 Objective
4.3 Character
4.4 Content
4.5 Institutional framework
4.6 Protection of indigenous knowledge
4.7 Biosafety and the Cartagena Protocol
4.8 Key aspects of the Cartagena Protocol
Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 International trade, competition & environmental
      protection

2.0 Multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs)
      & trade

3.0 Intellectual property rights and biodiversity & trade
- Key Readings
- References
- Treaties, Instruments & Cases
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 GATT rules of non discrimination
1.2 The general exception of Article XX of GATT
1.3 Creation of the WTO
1.4 SPS Agreement (WTO 1994b)
1.5 TBT Agreement (WTO 1994a)
1.6 Political reaction
Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Trade versus environment issues for 14 Multilateral Environmental
      Agreements




Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 US Complaint to the WTO
3.2 TRIPS and the CBD
3.3 Indigenous and traditional knowledge and genetic resources



Section 3 Self Assessment Questions