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Acronyms and Abbreviations




AAUs assigned amount units
AB Appellate Body
ACTO Amazon Cooperation Treaty
AOSIS Alliance of Small Island States
ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations
ATS Antarctic Treaty System
AU African Union
BAN Basel Action Network
BAT best available technique
BGB Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (Germany)
BIICL British Institute of International and Comparative Law
BPMs best practical means
BSWG Working Group on Biosafety
BWT ballast water management
CARU Comisión Administradora del Río Uruguay
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CCAMLR Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
CCAS Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals
CDM clean development mechanism
CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
CER certified emission reduction
CESCR Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
CFCs chlorofluorocarbons
CIS clearing house mechanism
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
CLC Civil Liability for Oil Pollution
CMS Convention on Migratory Species
COE Council of Europe
COMIFAC Commission des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale
COP Conference of the Parties
CPB Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
CRAMRA Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities
CRC Chemical Review Committee
CSD Commission on Sustainable Development
CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
CTE Committee on Trade and Environment
CVM contingent valuation methodology
DALYs disability adjusted life years
DES diethylstilbestrol
DGD decision guidance document
DSB dispute settlement body
DSU dispute settlement understanding
EC European Commission
ECCP European Climate Change Programme
ECJ European Court of Justice
EEC European Economic Community
EEZ exclusive economic zone
EFZ exclusive fishing zone
EIA environmental impact assessment
ELARD Earth Link and Advanced Resources Development
EMEP European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EPCRA Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
ERU emission reduction unit
ESM environmentally sound management
ESOSOC (United Nations) Economic and Social Council
EU European Union
EUROTOM European Atomic Energy Community
EW exempt wastes
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FDA Food and Drug Administration
FOC flags of convenience
FSC Forest Stewardship Council
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GDP gross domestic product
GEF Global Environmental Facility
GEO Global Environmental Organization
GESAMP the joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection
GHG greenhouse gas
GMO genetically modified organism
GRAS generally recognised as safe
GSP generalised system of preferences
HCB hexachlorobenzene
HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon
HELCOM Helsinki Commission
HLW high level waste
IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
IAIA International Association for Impact Assessment
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
ICCAT International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas
ICCPR International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
ICJ International Court of Justice
ICRP International Commission on Radiological Protection
ICWE International Conference on Water and the Environment
ICZM integrated coastal zone management
IDA International Development Association
IFF Intergovernmental Forum on Forests
IIL Institute of International Law
IJC International Joint Commission
ILA International Law Association
ILC International Law Commission
ILO International Labour Organization
ILW intermediate level waste
IMO International Maritime Organization
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPF Intergovernmental Panel of Forests
IPPC International Plant Protection Convention
ITLOS International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
ITO International Trade Organization
ITTA International Tropical Timber Agreement
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (formerly IUPN)
IUPN International Union for the Protection of Nature
IWC International Whaling Convention
IWGC Intergovernmental Working Group on Conservation
JI joint implementation
LDC least developed countries
LDS least developed states
LILW low and intermediate level waste
LLW low level waste
LMO living modified organism
LOST Law of the Sea Treaty
LRTAP Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution
MAP Mediterranean Action Plan
MDG millennium development goals
MEA multilateral environmental agreements
MFN most favoured nation treatment
MIACC Major Industrial Accidents Council of Canada
MIC methyl isocyanate
MMPA Marine Mammals Protection Act
MOP Meeting of the Parties
MRC Mekong River Commission
NEA Nuclear Energy Agency
NGO(s) non-governmental organisation(s)
NIMBY not in my back yard
nm nautical mile
NPT non-proliferation Treaty
NT national treatment
OAU Organization of African Unity
ODS ozone depleting substances
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OHCHR Office of the (United Nations) High Commissioner for Human Rights
OSCE Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (Oslo and Paris Convention)
PCA Permanent Court of Arbitration
PCB polychlorinated biphenyls
PCDD/PCDF polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran
PCIJ Permanent Court of International Justice
PIC prior informed consent
POP persistent organic pollutant
PPM product production methods
PPP polluter pays principle
PSM process safety management
PTBT Partial Test Ban Treaty
PVPA Plant Variety Protection Act
RFG reformulated gasoline
RMU a removal unit
SADC Southern African Development Community
SCC Supreme Court of Canada
SCRS Standing Committee on Research and Statistics
SEA strategic environmental assessment
SHPF severely hazardous pesticide formulation
SOLAS Safety of Life at Sea
SPS sanitary and phytosanitary measures
STCW Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers
TAC total allowable catch
TBT technical barriers to trade
TED turtle excluder device
TFAP Tropical Forestry Action Plan
TRIPS Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act
UCIL Union Carbide India Limited
UDHR Universal Declaration of Human Rights
UN United Nations
UNCCD United Nations Convention on Desertification
UNCCUR United Nations Conference on the Conservation and Utilisation of Resources
UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNCHE United Nations Conference on the Human Environment
UNCHR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
UNCSD United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNFF United Nations Forum on Forests
UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session
UNHCHR United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
UPOV International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants
URFG unreformulated gasoline
USA United States of America
VLLW very low level waste
VOC volatile organic compound
VSLW very short-lived waste
WANGO World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations
WCED World Commission on Environment and Development
WDPA World Database on Protected Areas
WFD Water Framework Directive
WHC World Heritage Convention
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WNA World Nuclear Association
WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development
WTO World Trade Organization
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature