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Treaties, Instruments and Cases

The information below is provided for your reference.

1909

BWT (1909) Boundary Water Treaty. Treaty between the United States and Great Britain Relating to Boundary Waters, and Questions Arising between the United States and Canada.

Available from: http://bwt.ijc.org/index.php?page=Treaty-Text&hl=eng

1938

UN (1938) Trail Smelter Case (United States, Canada). United Nations.

Available from: http://untreaty.un.org/cod/riaa/cases/vol_III/1905-1982.pdf

1945

UN (1945) Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Court of Justice. United Nations.

Available from: http://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/CTC/uncharter.pdf

1946 IWC (1946) International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. Washington 2 December 1946.

Available from: http://iwcoffice.org/commission/convention.htm

1947

UN (1947) The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). United Nations.

Available from: http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/gatt47_02_e.htm

1948

UN (1948) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. United Nations.

Available from: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml

1949

ICJ (1949) Judgement. The Corfu Channel Case (Merits) 9 April 1949. International Court of Justice.

Available from: http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/1/1645.pdf

1954

UN (1954) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil. London 26 April to 12 May 1954. United Nations.

Available from: http://sedac.ciesin.org/entri/texts/pollution.of.sea.by.oil.1954.html

1957

UN (1957) Affaire du Lac Lanoux (Espagne, France). United Nations.

Available from: http://legal.un.org/riaa/cases/vol_XII/281-317_Lanoux.pdf

1958

UN (1958a) Convention on the High Seas to Prevent Oil Pollution and Dumping of Radioactive Waste on the High Seas. Geneva 29 April 1958. United Nations.

Available from: http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/8_1_1958_high_seas.pdf

UN (1958b) Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas to Protect Marine Living Resources. Geneva 29 April 1958. United Nations.

Available from: http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/8_1_1958_fishing.pdf

UN (1958c) Convention on the Continental Shelf to Regulate Jurisdiction to Exploit the Natural Resources of the Continental Shelf. Geneva 29 April 1958. United Nations.

Available from: http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/8_1_1958_continental_shelf.pdf

1959

ATS (1959) The Antarctic Treaty. Washington DC1 December 1959. Antarctic Treaty System.

Available from: http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/about_antarctica/geopolitical/treaty/update_1959.php

1963

PTBT (1963) Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water. Moscow 5 August 1963. Partial Test Ban Treaty.

Available from: http://www.un.org/disarmament/WMD/Nuclear/pdf/Partial_Ban_Treaty.pdf

1968

OAU (1968) African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.Algiers 15 September 1968. Organization of African Unity (now the African Union).

Available from: http://www.africa-union.org/root/au/Documents/Treaties/Text/Convention_Nature%20&%20Natural_Resources.pdf

1969

UN (1969) The 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Vienna 23 May 1969. United Nations.

Available from: http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/1_1_1969.pdf

ICJ (1969) Summary. North Sea Continental Shelf Cases Judgment of 20 February 1969.

Available from: http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/51/5537.pdf

1971

Ramsar (1971) The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands.

Available from: http://www.ramsar.org/pdf/lib/lib_manual2006e.pdf

1972

UNEP (1972) Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm 1972. United Nations Environment Programme.

Available from: http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?documentid=97&articleid=1503

UNCHE (1972) Convention on the Preservation of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. London 13 November 1972. United Nations Conference on the Human Environment.

Available from: http://www5.imo.org/SharePoint/blastDataOnly.asp/data_id=16925/LC1972.pdf

WHC (1972) Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. World Heritage Convention (WHC) (UNESCO).

Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/archive/convention-en.pdf

1973

CITES (1973) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna.

Available from: http://www.cites.org/

1973/

1978

MARPOL (1973/1978) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships. MARPOL.

Available from: http://www.imo.org/about/conventions/listofconventions/pages/international-convention-for-the-prevention-of-pollution-from-ships-(marpol).aspx

1978

UNEP (1978) Draft Principles of Conduct for the Guidance of States in the Conservation and Harmonious Exploitation of Natural Resources Shared by Two or More States. United Nations Environment Programme.

Available from: http://www.unep.org/Documents.multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=65&ArticleID=1260&l=en

1979

CMS (1979) The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS or Bonn Convention). Convention on Migratory Species.

Available from: http://www.cms.int/

UNECE (1979) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution LRTAP. Geneva.

Available from: http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/lrtap_h1.htm

1980

IUCN (1980) World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development. International Union for the Conservation of Nature together with the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Wide Fund for Nature.

Available from: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/WCS-004.pdf

1982

UNEP (1982) Montevideo Programme for the Development and Periodic Review of Environmental Law. United Nations Environment Programme.

Available from: http://www.unep.org/delc/MontevideoProgramme/tabid/54416/Default.aspx

UN (1982a) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (Montego Bay 1982) (UNCLOS). United Nations.

Available from: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf

UN (1982b) World Charter for Nature. General Assembly, 48th Plenary Meeting 28 October 1982, United Nations, New York.

Available from: http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/37/a37r007.htm

1985

UNEP (1985) The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. Vienna 22 March 1985.

Available from: http://ozone.unep.org/pdfs/viennaconvention2002.pdf

1987

UNEP (1987) Montreal Protocol onSubstances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (as agreed in 1987). United Nations Environment Programme.

Available from: http://ozone.unep.org/Ratification_status/montreal_protocol.shtml

1988

ATS (1988) Convention on the Conservation of Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities. Wellington 2 June 1988. (CRAMRA). Antarctic Treaty System.

Available from: http://sedac.ciesin.org/entri/texts/acrc/cramra.txt.html

1989

UNEP (1989) Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention). United Nations Environment Programme.

Available from: http://www.basel.int/Portals/4/Basel%20Convention/docs/text/BaselConventionText-e.pdf

1991

UNECE (1991) Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention). Espoo (Finland) 25 February 1991. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).

Available from: http://www.unece.org/env/eia/documents/legaltexts/conventiontextenglish.pdf

1992

UN (1992a) Earth Summit. Agenda 21. Division for Sustainable Development, United Nations Programme of Action from Rio.

Available from: http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?page=view&nr=23&type=400&menu=35

UN (1992b) Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests (Forest Principles).

Available from: http://habitat.igc.org/agenda21/forest.htm

UNEP (1992a) Rio Declaration on Environment and Development of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). United Nations Environment Programme.

Available from: http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.Print.asp?documentid=78&articleid=1163

UNEP (1992b) Convention of Biological Diversity (Rio de Janeiro). United Nations Environment Programme.

Available from: http://www.cbd.int/history/

UNFCCC (1992) The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

Available from: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf

1994

UNCCD (1994) United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa (UNCCD). Paris. United Nations.

Available from: http://www.unccd.int/

1995

UN (1995) Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 10 December 1982 Relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks. New York. United Nations.

Available from: http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N95/274/67/PDF/N9527467.pdf?OpenElement

1997

UNFCCC (1997) Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. UNFCCC.

Available from: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.html

ICJ (1997) Judgment. Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia). International Court of Justice.

Available from: http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/92/7375.pdf

1998

UNECE (1998) Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters. Aarhus, Denmark 25 June 1998.

Available from: http://www.unece.org/env/pp/welcome.html

UNEP (1998) Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade. UNEP and FAO.

Available from: http://ec.europa.eu/world/agreements/downloadFile.do?fullText=yes&treatyTransId=1442

WTO (1998) Dispute: Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), (United States of America v. European Community). World Trade Organization.

Available from: http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/cases_e/ds26_e.htm

2000

CBD (2000) A Supplement to the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity. The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. Convention of Biological Diversity.

Available from: http://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cartagena-protocol-en.pdf

UN (2000a) United Nations Millennium Declaration. New York 6-8 September 2000. United Nations.

Available from: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/millennium.html

UN (2000b) Millennium Development Goals. United Nations.

Available from: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/bkgd.shtml

2001

UNEP (2001 amended 2009) The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.

Available from: http://chm.pops.int/Convention/tabid/54/language/en-GB/Default.aspx

2002

UN (2002a) Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development. World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD).

Available from: http://www.un.org/jsummit/html/documents/summit_docs/0409_l6rev2_pol_decl.pdf

UN (2002b) Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development Johannesburg. World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD).

Available from: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/WSSD_POI_PD/English/POIToc.htm

UNHCHR (2002) General Comment No. 15 (2002). The Right to Water (Articles 11 and 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights). United Nations

Available from: http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/a5458d1d1bbd713fc1256cc400389e94/$FILE/G0340229.pdf