Unit 1 | Unit 2 | Unit 3 | Unit 4 | Unit 5 | Unit 6 | Unit 7 | Unit 8 | Unit 9 | Unit 10                
1.0 Finance and development
2.0 Finance for the poor
3.0 Sustainable livelihoods – the limits to financial
       capital

- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Multimedia
1.1 Finance and economic development
1.2 Finance and individual livelihoods
1.3 Market failures; information asymmetries and transaction costs



Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Understanding the livelihoods of the poor
2.2 How do the poor manage their money?
2.3 Livelihoods and finance in rural areas
2.4 Defining ‘rural finance’


Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 The sustainable livelihoods framework and the asset pentagon
3.2 Identifying missing livelihood capitals




Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.0 Why do we need accounts, and what goes where?
2.0 Accounting practice: businesses, farms
      and financial institutions

3.0 Accounting for households
4.0 The importance of timing of cash flow

- Key Readings
- Further Reading
- References
- Multimedia
1.1 Financial capital
1.2 Making sense of accounting terminology
1.3 Making use of accounting terminology
1.4 Which items go in the balance sheet, and which in the profit
      and loss account?


Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Alice's shop
2.2 Hussain's farm
2.3 Loveness' microbank



Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Antonia and Anton's household





Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Cash flow timing





- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.0 Background: rural economies and rural poverty
2.0 Farming finances
3.0 The rural non-farm economy
4.0 Why does gender matter?

- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Multimedia
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 Rural livelihoods: who are the rural poor and what do they do?
1.2 Changing rural economies
1.3 The finances of the rural poor



Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Seasonal and risky incomes
2.2 How do farmers manage irregular and uncertain incomes?
2.3 Providing financial services to farmers



Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 The rural non-farm economy (RNFE)
3.2 Managing finances and improving livelihoods in the RNFE




Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 Homing in on rural women
4.2 Why are things harder for women?
4.3 Women and financial management



Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 The financial instruments of the poor: saving
       and borrowing alone and with others

2.0 Informal and formal financial service providers
3.0 Learning from, building on, and supplementing
       existing financial instruments


- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 Going it alone: saving at home
1.2 Give and take: borrowing and lending with others
1.3 Getting together: mutual support groups



Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Banks and other formal service providers
2.2 Informal financial service providers: money guards and moneylenders
2.3 Interlinked transactions
2.4 Remittance services


Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Learning from informal mechanisms
3.2 Supporting and supplementing informal mechanisms




Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 Interventions in rural financial markets: directed
       credit and its critique

2.0 Microcredit: a new paradigm
3.0 What about the rural poor and agriculture?
- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Multimedia
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 Interest rate ceilings and directed credit: efforts
      to provide financial services to the rural poor

1.2 Outcomes of directed credit
1.3 Directed credit: what went wrong?


Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 The emergence of microcredit
2.2 The Grameen model
2.3 Microcredit becomes the norm



Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Why doesn't microfinance reach the rural poor?
3.2 The current state of rural and agricultural finance for the poor




Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 Starting with savings
2.0 Managing risk: providing insurance to the rural poor
3.0 Credit for the rural poor
4.0 Remittances
- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Multimedia
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 What sort of savings facilities should we provide for the rural poor?
1.2 What is being done? Learning from and building on MFI experiences
1.3 Steps to providing savings products



Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Microinsurance: experiences to date
2.2 Farming risks: insurance for livestock and crops
2.3 Credit guarantees



Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Credit for the rural poor
3.2 Seasonal loans for poor farmers
3.3 Long-term loans for rural farmers



Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 What are remittances and how significant are they?
4.2 Why get involved?




Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 Groups, groups, and more groups:
      different degrees of decentralisation

2.0 Lending to indivduals
3.0 Mobile banking and technological advances
4.0 Value chains
- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Multimedia
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 Working through groups differently: Grameen groups versus SHGs
1.2 Even more decentralisaion: VSLAs, village banks, and more
1.3 Decentralisation challenges



Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 What is wrong with working through groups?
2.2 Groups are just one way to reach out to the poor
2.3 Summarising the secrets of successful individual lending



Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Mobile services and piggybacking
3.2 Reaching out with mobile phones: the emergence of m-banking
3.3 Other electronic devices: cards, PDAs, biometrics and more



Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 What are value chains and how do they include financing?
4.2 How can rural finance interventions learn from or build upon
      value chain financing?




Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 The institutional landscape
2.0 Commercialisaion
3.0 Regulation and the role of government
- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 The institutional landscape; who is involved?
1.2 NGOs and microfinance banks
1.3 Agricultural development banks (AgDBs): reform or closure?
1.4 Commercial banks and microfinance


Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 What does commercialisation mean and why is it a good thing?
2.2 Compartamos: what might go wrong?
2.3 NGO-MFI performance indicators



Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Government regulation: what needs to be done?
3.2 Regulation in practice
3.3 Beyond regulation? Can politics be left out of it?



Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 Sources of funding
2.0 How to measure subsidy levels
3.0 Interest rates, repayment rates and efficiency
4.0 Smart subsidies
- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Summary
- Unit Self-Assessment
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 Where do MFIs get their funds from? What do those funders expect
      from their investments?

1.2 Debt or equity?
1.3 Can there be too much investment?


Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Covering costs = sustainability?
2.2 Estimating subsidy and interest rate required to cover costs
2.3 Complications in working out subsidies



Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Why do interest rates have to be so high to cover costs?
3.2 How much can poor people pay?
3.3 Cutting costs or raising revenues without increasing interest rates



Section 3 Self Assessment Questions
4.1 What is wrong with subsidy?
4.2 Smart subsidies
4.3 The need to measure the benefits of subsidy



Section 4 Self Assessment Questions
1.0 How to assess impact?
2.0 What has been the impact of microfinance to date?
3.0 The way forward
- Key Readings
- Further Readings
- References
- Multimedia
- Summary
- Unit Self Assessment Questions
- Key Terms and Concepts
1.1 Measuring the impact of what?
1.2 Anecdotes and happy stories
1.3 Surveys to capture broader impact
1.4 Randomised evaluations


Section 1 Self Assessment Questions
2.1 Reducing poverty?
2.2 Empowerment of the poor, especially women?




Section 2 Self Assessment Questions
3.1 Beyond finance: recognising the limits
3.2 Beyond credit: savings, insurance, remittances and cash transfers
3.3 Finance that works: well-designed products that reach the rural poor



Section 3 Self Assessment Questions