SOAS University of London

Department of Economics

Topics in the Political Economy of Contemporary Middle East

Module Code:
153400145
Credits:
15
Year of study:
Final Year
Taught in:
Term 2

The course aims at introducing students to the key debates surrounding the process of economic liberalisation and globalisation in the MENA region. It examines various dimensions of the globalisation and liberalisation process of the past two decades. After exploring the opportunities and constraints the region faces in terms of its ability to benefit from globalisation through a process of economic liberalisation, it assesses two dimensions of global interaction namely aid flows to the MENA region and IMF and World Bank policy based lending to the region. This is followed by analysis of the liberalisation of three key sectors in the region – state enterprise sector, financial sector and agricultural sector. The social implications of economic liberalisation programmes are analysed along with the strategies to deal with adverse social welfare impacts in the form of social safety net programmes. Food security in the region is also assessed from a global perspective. This material is then contextualised by way of comparative country case studies of the liberalisation.

Prerequisites

Pre-requisite modules:

153400123 OR 153400130 OR 153400124

(Macroeconomic Analysis OR Microeconomic Analysis OR Issues in Development Economics)

Objectives and learning outcomes of the module

LO1.               Understand problems of integration of the Middle Eastern economies in the global economy

LO2.               Understand the reasons why a process of economic liberalisation was needed in the MENA region.

LO3.               Conceptualise the characteristics of an economic liberalisation programme and its sectoral implications.

LO4.               Be familiar with the key debates surrounding the process of liberalisation and be able to articulate arguments both for and against different dimensions of economic liberalisation in the context of MENA.

LO5.               Understand the social welfare and political implications of economic reform at both a regional and country-specific level.

LO6.               Present country case study examples of the economic, social and political experience of  liberalisation.

Workload

two hour lecture together with a one hour seminar, each week.

Scope and syllabus

Globalisation Opportunities and Constraints facing MENA

 Aid flows to MENA

World Bank and IMF Programmes in the MENA Region

Privatisation in MENA countries

Financial sector liberalisation

Natural resources and the liberalisation of agriculture

Social Safety Net Programmes and Social Protection Policies

Case Studies of Economic Liberalisation in different countries.

Food Security in MENA

Method of assessment

One written exam (two hours), worth 70% of the total mark for the module

One essay (2,500 words) worth 30% of the total mark for the module - due Term 2

Suggested reading

Core Reading:

Cammett, M., Diwan, I., Richards, A. and Waterbury J. (2015), A Political Economy of the Middle East, fourth edition, Westview Press.

Karshenas, M. (2001) ‘Structural Obstacles to Economic Adjustment in the MENA Region:  The International Trade Aspects’, in H. Hakimian and Z. Moshaver (eds.), The State and Global Change:  the Political

Harrigan, J. (2014), The Political Economy of Arab Food Sovereignty, Palgrave Macmillan.

Harrigan, J. and El-Said, H. (2009), Aid and Power in the Arab World: The IMF and World Bank Policy-Based Lending in the Middle East and North Africa, Palgrave Macmillan.

Harrigan, J. and El-Said, H. (2009), Economic Liberalisation, Social Capital and Islamic Welfare Provision, Palgrave Macmillan.

El-Said, H. and Harrigan, J. (eds.) (2011), Globalisation, Democratisation and Radicalisation in the Arab World, Palgrave Macmillan..

Additional Reading:

El-Said, H. and Harrigan, J. (eds.) (2011), Globalisation, Democratisation and Radicalisation in the Arab World, Chapters 1 and 2, Palgrave Macmillan.

World Bank (2003) “Trade, Investment and Development in the Middle East and North Africa: Engaging with the World”, World Bank, Washington DC. Chpts 1,2,3, and 4.

Harrigan, J. and El-Said, H. (2006),“Globalisation, International Finance and Political Islam in the Arab World”, The Middle East Journal, vol. 60 no. 3, pp. 236-251, Summer 2006.  This can also be found in Harrigan, J. and El-Said, H. (2009), Aid and Power in the Arab World: The IMF and World Bank Policy-Based Lending in the Middle East and North Africa, Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 1.

Abed, G, Davoodi H (2003). Challenges of Growth and Globalization in the Middle East and North Africa.

http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/med/2003/eng/abed.htm

Henry, C and R. Springborg (2001) Globalization and the Politics of Development in the Middle East Cambridge, University Press, Chpts 1,2, and 8.

Hakimian, H. and Moshaver, Z. (eds) (2001) The State and Global Challenge, Curzon, UK. Chpts 1, 3 and 4.

Cardoso, E. and Galal A. (2003), External Environment, Globalization and Reform, The Egyptian Centre for Economic Studies, Working Paper No. 80, April 2003.

El-Eriasn, M. (1997), Globalization and the Arab Economies: From Marginalization to Integration, The Egyptian Centre for Economic Studies, Working Paper No. 14, July 1997.

Shafik, N. (ed., 1998b), Prospects for Middle Eastern and North African Economies – From Boom to Bust and Back?, Basingstoke and London: Macmillan Press. Chpts 1 and 2.

Shafik N. (1998a) Economic Challenges Facing the Middle Eastern and North African Countries: Alternative Futures, Chpt. 1

Handoussa, H. (ed) (1997) Economic Transition in the Middle East: Global Challenges and Adjustment Strategies, The American University in Cairo Press. Chpts 1  and 2.

Harrigan. J. (2002) “International Finance for Development” Chpt. 10 in Kirkpatrick, C., Clarke, R. and Polidano, C. (eds) Handbook on Development Policy and Management, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK. (A brief general introduction to the role of foreign aid versus other forms of international finance in the development process).

El-Said, H. and Harrigan, J. (eds.) (2011), Globalisation, Democratisation and Radicalisation in the Arab World, Chapter 2, Palgrave Macmillan.

Harrigan, J. (2011), The Political Economy of Aid Flows to North Africa. UNU WIDER (World University of Development Economic Research, Working Paper no. 2011/72 www.wider.unu.edu/.../working-papers/2011/en.../wp2011-072.pdf

Hjertholm P. and White H. (2000), “Survey of Foreign Aid: History, Trends and Allocation”, DERG Working Paper, University of Copenhagen www.econ.ku.dk/wpa/pink/2000/0004.pdf

Harrigan, J. and El-Said, H. (2009), Aid and Power in the Arab World: The IMF and World Bank Policy-Based Lending in the Middle East and North Africa, Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 2. This can also be found in Harrigan, J., El-Said, H. and Wang, C. (2006), “The Economic and Political Determinants of IMF and World Bank Lending in the Middle East and North Africa” World Development vol. 34, no. 2, pp.247-270, February 2006.

Department for International Development (DFID) (2003) Middle East and North Africa Regional Assistance Plan, DFID: London

Neumayer, E. (2004), “Arab-related Bilateral and Multilateral Sources of Development Finance: Issues. Trends and the Way Forward”, The World Economy Feb 2004, vol. 27, Issue 2.

Achilli, M and Khaldi, M. (1984) The Role of Arab Development Funds in the World Economy. Croom Helm: London.

Nonneman, G. (1988) Development, Administration and Aid in the Middle East, Routledge: London.

Diwan. I., Suire,L. and Underwood, J. (1993), External Finance in the Middle East: Trends and Prospects, Economic Research Forum Working paper 9402: Washington DC.

McDermott, A. (1990) “Arab Indebtedness – a Burden for the 1990s”, Arab Affairs, vol. 1 no. 11.

Shihata and Mabro R. (1979) “The OPEC Aid Record”, World Development, vol. 7, no. 2.

Harrigan, J. and El-Said, H. (2009), Aid and Power in the Arab World: The IMF and World Bank Policy-Based Lending in the Middle East and North Africa, Palgrave Macmillan, Chapters 3-7. A shortened version of this can be found in Harrigan, J. and El-Said, H. (2010) “The Economic Impact of IMF and World Bank Programs in the Middle East and North Africa: A Case Study of Jordan, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, 1983-2004”, Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, vol. 6, no. 2. 

El-Said, H. and Harrigan, J. (2014),”Economic Reform, Social Welfare, and Instability: Jordan, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, 1983-2004”, Middle East Journal, vol.68, no. 1, Winter 2014.

Cammett et al (2015), A Political Economy of the Middle East, chapters 7 and 8.

El-Said, H. and Harrigan, J. (eds.) (2011), Globalisation, Democratisation and Radicalisation in the Arab World, Chapter 3 by Jamil Ali Hammoud, Palgrave Macmillan.

Mossallem, M. (2015), “The IMF in the Arab World: Lessons Unlearnt”, Bretton Woods Project, www.brettonwoodsproject.org/imf-policy-in-the-mena-region/

Alissa, Sufian. (2007). “The Challenge of Economic Reform in the Arab World.”  Carnegie Papers, Carnegie Middle East Center, Number 1, May.

Dasgupta Dipak, Jennifer Keller and T.G. Srinivasan (2001).  “Reform and Elusive Growth in the Middle East: What Has Happened in the 1990’s?”  Middle East and North Africa Working Papers Series, No. 25, World Bank, Washington DC, July.

International Monetary Fund. (2003). “Fulfilling a Promise: Reform Prospects in the MENA region.”  IMF, Washington DC.

Nabli Mustapha Kamel and Marie-Ange Veganzones-Varoudakis.  (2004)  “Reforms and Growth in MENA Countries: New Empirical Evidence.”  Middle East and North Africa Working Papers Series, No. 36, World Bank, Washington DC, May.

World Bank (2007) MENA Economic Developments and Prospects: Job Creation in an Era of High Growth. The World Bank, Washington DC.

Pfiefer, K. (1999) “How Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan and even Egypt became IMF Success Stories”, The Middle East Report, 210, vol. 29,pp. 23-26.

Page, J. (1998) “From Boom to Bust – and Back? The Crisis of Growth in the Middle East and North Africa” chpt. 5 in Shafik (N) (ed.) Prospects for Middle East and North African Economies: From Boom to Bust and Back? Palgrave: Basingstoke.

El-Naggar, S. (ed) (1987)  Adjustment Policies and Development Strategies in the Arab World, International Monetary Fund: Washington DC.

El-Ghonemy M. (1998) Affluence and Poverty in the Middle East, Chpt 10 “Economic Policy Reforms: Distributional Impact”, Routledge: London

Shafik N. (1998) Economic Challenges Facing the Middle Eastern and North African Countries: Alternative Futures, chpts 1, 2, 7, and 11. Macmillan Press Ltd: Basingstoke.

Owen R. (1993) “The Transformation of Systems of Economic and Political Management in the Middle East: the Lessons so Far”, Review of Middle Eastern Studies, no. 6.

Shehadi, Kamal S. (2002) “Lessons in Privitasation: Considerations for Arab States.” United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

World Bank Privatisation Database, MENA region, www.worldbank/privatization

Celasun, Merih (ed.) (2001), State-owned Enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa: Privatisation, Performance and Reform, Routledge.

Celasun, Merih (2003), “State-owned Enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa: Privatisation, Performance and Reform”, Finance and Development, 2003 (3) vol. 4 no. 1 p55.

Dawley, D. and Haider, J.I. (2008), “Privatisation and Financial Performance: Can Value be Created by Privatising State Owned Enterprises in Middle East and North Africa Region”, Journal of Business Valuation and Loss Analysis, vol. 3, no. 1. Also available at      http://ideas.repec.org/a/bpj/jbvela/v3y2008i1n1.html

Loo-See Beh and Abdullah Alameer (2012), “Privatisation in the Middle East: An Insight into Yemen’s Initiatives, Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 11, no. 10.

Kauffann, C. and Wegner. L. (2007), “Privatisation in the MENA Region: Where do we Stand?”. OECD Development Centre Working Paper no. 261.

Jamal Ibrahim Haidar  (2008) ”Infrastructure Privatisation: a multinational review of five initiatives in the Middle East and North Africa region”, International Journal of Arab Culture, Management and Sustainable Development, 2008 Vol.1, No.1, pp.82 – 122

Naceur, S., Ghazouanis, S. and Omran, M. (2006), “The Performance of Newly Privatised Firms in Selected MENA Countries; The Role of Ownership Structure, Governance and Liberalisation Policies”. International Review of Financial Analysis.

www.egx.com.eg/pdf/CG_IRFA.pdf

Biygautane, M., & Lahouel, M.,( 2012), ‘The Political Economy of Privatization in the Maghreb Region: How Domestic and External Factors have Shaped the Privatization Process and Outcomes’, in J. Costa (ed.), Europe and Mediterranean Economy, pp. 135-149, Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group: London

Biygautane, M. (2011) “The Political Economy of Privatisation in the Maghreb Region: How Domestic and External Factors have Shaped the process and Outcome”, Dubai School of Government Working Paper No. 11-05. www.dsg.ae/en/Publication/Pdf_En/WP11-05.pdf

Omran, M. (2004), “The Performance of State-Owned Enterprises and Newly Privatised Firms: Does Privatisation Really Matter?”, World Development, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1019-1041.

G. Luciani (1997) “Privatisation as a Policy for Development”, Chpt. 6 in Handoussa H. (ed.) Economic Transition in the Middle East, The American University in Cairo Press: Cairo.

Nazih Ayubi (1997) “Etatisme Versus Privatisation: The Changing Economic Role of the State in Nine Arab Countries”, Chpt. 7 in Handoussa H. (ed.) Economic Transition in the Middle East, The American University in Cairo Press: Cairo.

Anderson, R. and Martinez, A (1998) “Supporting Private Sector Development in the Middle East and North Africa”, Chpt. 7 in Shafik (N) (ed.) Prospects for Middle East and North African Economies: From Boom to Bust and Back?, Palgrave: Basingstoke.

Harik, L. and Sullivan, D. (eds.) (1992) Privatisation and Liberalisation in the Middle East, Indiana University Press Chpts 1 and  2  plus at least two more chapters from 4-11 covering at least three different country case studies.

Van der Hoeven, R., Karshenas, M. and Sziraczki, G. (1997) “Privatisation and Labour Issues in the Context of Economic Reform” in Kanaan. T. (ed) The Social Effects of Economic Adjustment in Arab Countries, International Monetary Fund: Washington DC.

Kanaan, T. (1997) “The State and the Private Sector in Jordan” in Shafik, N.(ed) Economic Challenges Facing the Middle Eastern and North African Countries: Alternative Futures, Macmillan Press Ltd: Basingstoke.

Khattab, M. (1999), Constraints to Privatization: The Egyptian Experience, The Egyptian Centre for Economic Studies, Working Paper No 38, May 1999.

Kirkpatrick, C., Clarke, R. and Polidano, C. (2002). Handbook on Development Policy and Management, Chpt. 15 “Financial Sector Policies”, Edward Elgar.

World Bank (2011), Financial Access and Stability: A Road Map for the Middle East and North Africa. World Bank, Washington DC.

World Bank  (2006), MENA Economic Developments and Prospects 2006: Financial Markets in a New Age of Oil. The World Bank, Washington DC.

African Development Bank (2012), Capital Market Development in North Africa: Current Status and Future Potential, www.afdb.org

Nasser, S. (2004), “Financial Sector Development and Reform”, Newsletter of the Economic Research Forum for the Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey, Vol. 11, No. 2 summer 2004. http://www.erf.org.eg/nletter/Newsletter_Sum04/NewForumNewsSum04-P9-13.pdf

Creane, S., Rishi, G., Mobarak, A.M. and Sab, R. (2004), “Financial Sector Development in the Middle East and North Africa”, IMF Working Paper, Washington DC. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/med/2003/eng/creane/

Boone, C. and Clement, H. (2004), “Neoliberalism in the Middle East and Africa: Divergent Banking Reform Trajectories, 1980s to 2000”, Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, pp.356-392.

M. Nagy El-tony (2003), “Arab Financial Sector Development and Institution”, Economic Research Forum for the Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey, Working paper no. 200334, www.erf.org.eg

Berthelemy, J-C. (2004), “Have Middle East and North Africa Countries Achieved a Critical Mass of Change in their Financial Systems?” Savings and Development, vol. XXVIII no. 2 p.107.

Nashashibi, K., Elhage, M. and Fedelino, A. (2001), “Financial Liberalization in Arab Countries” in Macroeconomic Issues and Policies in the Middle East and North Africa, ed. Zubair Iqbal, International Monetary Fund: Washington DC.

Richards, A. (1999), “The Global Financial Crisis and Economic Reform in the Middle East”, Middle East Policy Vol. VI, No. 3, Feb 1999.

http://www.mepc.org/public_asp/journal_vol6/9902_richards.asp

Abdelali, Jbili, Enders, K. and Treichel, V. (1997), “Financial Sector Reforms in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia: A Preliminary Assessment”, IMF Working Paper.

http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/wp9781.pdf

Chalk, N. Jbili, A. Treichel, V. and Wilson, J. (1996). ‘Financial Sector Reform’, in IMF, Building on Progress: Reform and Growth in the Middle East and North Africa, Washington, Middle East Department, IMF

Harrigan, J. (2014), The Political Economy of Arab Food Sovereignty, Chapter 7, Palgrave Macmillan.

World Bank (2003) “Trade, Investment and Development in the Middle East and North Africa: Engaging with the World”, World Bank, Washington DC. Chpt 6.

Richards, A. and John Waterbury. (2013). A Political Economy of Middle East, Oxford, Westview. Chpt. 6

IFPRI (2010), Middle East and North AfricaStrategy, ww.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/menastrategy.pdf

World Bank (2002) Reaching the Rural Poor: A Rural Development Strategy for the Middle East and North Africa Region

http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/ardext.nsf/11ByDocName/MiddleEastandNorthAfricamaintext/$FILE/MENA_Strategy_web1.pdf

Tsakiridou, E. and Mattas, K. (2010), “Middle East and North Africa Countries’ Agricultural Export Potential under Trade Reforms”, Applied Economics, pp. 1591-1599.

World Bank (2008). World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development. Washington, DC

El-Ghonemy, M. (1999), “Recent Changes in Agrarian Reform and Rural Development Strategies in the Near East”, Land Reform, Vols 1-2, pp.9-20.

Shafik, N. (ed., 1998b), Prospects for Middle Eastern and North African Economies – From Boom to Bust and Back?, Basingstoke and London: Macmillan Press. Chpts  10 and 11.

Harrigan, J. (2014), The Political Economy of Arab Food Sovereignty, Chapters 1-6, Palgrave Macmillan.

Harrigan, J. (2013) “The Political Economy of Food Sovereignty in North Africa”, African Development Bank Policy Brief.

Harrigan, J. (2014), “An Economic Analysis of National Food Sovereignty Policies in the Middle East: The Case of Lebanon and Jordan”, Chapter in Babar, Z. and Mirgani, S. (eds) Food Security in the Middle East, Hurst.

Harrigan, J. (2012), “Did Food Prices Plant the Seeds of the Arab Spring?” SOAS Inaugural Lecture series, video available from SOAS website.

Cammett et al (2015), A Political Economy of the Middle East, chapter 6.

International Food Policy Research Institute IFPRI (2012),. Beyond the Arab Awakening: Policies and Investments for Poverty Reduction and Food Security. Washington DC: IFPRI Food Policy Report.

International Food Policy Research Institute IFPRI (2010), Food Security and Economic Development in the Middle East and North Africa: Current State and Future Perspectives.

ESCWA (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia) (2010), Food Security and Conflict in the ESCWA Region. New York: UN.

World Bank (2009), Improving Food Security in Arab Countries.

Lofgren, H. (2003), Food, Agriculture, and Economic Policy in the Middle East and North Africa. Elsevier.

Hamdy, A. and Liuzzi, T. Water Scarcity Management Towards Food Security in the Middle East Region. www. Ressources.ciheam.org

Wilson, J.P. and Bruins, H.J. “Food Security in the Middle East since 1961”, The Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev.

Lofren, H. and Richards, A. (2003), “Food Security, Poverty, and Economic Policy in the Middle East and North Africa”, International Food Policy Research Institute, TMD Discussion Paper no. 111.

El-Ghonemy, M. (1993), “Food Security and Rural Development in North Africa”, Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 29, no. 3, pp.445-66.

Harrigan, J. (2014), The Political Economy of Arab Food Sovereignty, Chapter 8, Palgrave Macmillan.

Alami, R. and Karshenas, M. (2011). “Social Policy in ESCWA Region Post-Arab Spring”, paper prepared for ESCWA Beirut, October 2011.

Alami, R. and Karshenas, M. (2012). “Deficient Social Policies have Helped Spark the Arab Spring”. Development Viewpoint, no. 70, February 2012, Centre for Development Policy and Research, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

Karshenas, M., Moghadam, V. and Alami, R. (2014) “Social Policy after the Arab Spring: States and Social Rights in the MENA Region” World Development, 2014, vol. 64, issue C, pages 726-739

Karshenas, M. and Moghadam, V. (2006), Social Policy in the Middle East: Economic, Political and Gender Dynamics, Palgrave.

Handoussa, H. and Tzannatos, Z. (2002), Employment Creation and Social Protection in the Middle East and North Africa, Chpts. 6 and 7. The American University in Cairo Press.

IMF (2012), “Costly Middle East Subsidies need better Targeting”, IMF Survey Magazine,

www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2012/car051412b.htm

World Bank (2002), Reducing Vulnerability and Increasing Opportunity: Social Protection in the Middle East and North Africa, World Bank, Washington DC.

World Bank (2012), “Inclusion and Resilience: The Way Forward for Social Safety Nets in the Middle East and North Africa”, Report number 72975, Washington DC: World Bank.

ODI (2011), “Children and Social Protection in MENA”, Project Briefing no.64 Oct. 2011.

Al-Allaghi, F.A. (2005), “The Role of Arab Non-Governmental Organisations as a Development Vehicle”, Chpt. 5 in in Handoussa, H. (ed.), Arab Women and Economic Development, The Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development.

Harrigan, J. and El-Said, H. (2009), Economic Liberalisation, Social Capital and Islamic Welfare Provision, Palgrave Macmillan., Chapters 4-8.

Al-Sayyid, M. K. (2002), Facing Social Consequences of Structural Adjustment in Latin America and the Arab World, Chpts. by  Al-Sayyid, Abdel-Rahman Sabry, Saad  Hafez, Naser, Berar Awad, El-Din, El-Laithy and Glavanis. Centre of Developing Countries Studies, Cairo University.

Knowles, W. (2011), “Contesting Structural Adjustment: The Donor Community, Rentier Elite and Economic Liberalisation in Jordan”, in El-Said, H. and Harrigan, J. (eds.) (2011),  Globalisation, Democratisation and Radicalisation in the Arab World, Palgrave Macmillan.

Harrigan, J., El-Said, H. And Wang, C. (2006) “The IMF and the World Bank in Jordan: A Case of Over Optimism and Elusive Growth”, Review of International Organisations, p. 263-292. This can also be found in Harrigan, J. and El-Said, H. (2009), Aid and Power in the Arab World: The IMF and World Bank Policy-Based Lending in the Middle East and North Africa, Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 4.

El-Said, H. and Harrigan, J. (2014), “Economic Reform, Social Welfare, and Instability: Jordan, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, 1983-2004, The Middle East Journal, vol. 68, no. 1 Winter 2014.

Centre for Development Policy and Research (2011), “Jordan’s Paradox of Growth without Employment: A Microcosm of the Middle East”, CDPR Development Viewpoint no.65 August 2011. 

World Bank (2004), “Jordan: Supporting Stable Development in a Challenging Region”, World Bank Operations Evaluation Department and Islamic Development Bank Operations Evaluation Department, Washington DC.

El-Said, H. (2001), 'The Political Economy of Reform in Jordan: Breaking Resistance to Reform?' In Joffe, G (ed.), Transitions in Contemporary Jordan (1989-2000).

Kanaan, T. and Kardoosh, M. (2002). The Story of Economic Growth in Jordan: 1950-2000, Amman, October 2002, found on web site at http://www.erf.org.eg/html/grp/GRP_Sep03/Jordan-develop.pdf.

Pfeifer, K. (1999). ‘How Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, and even Egypt Became IMF Success Story’, in Middle East Report, Fall 1999, pp. 23-27.

Harrigan, J. and El-Said, H. (2009), Aid and Power in the Arab World: The IMF and World Bank Policy-Based Lending in the Middle East and North Africa, Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 5.

El-Said, H. and Harrigan, J. (2014), “Economic Reform, Social Welfare, and Instability: Jordan, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, 1983-2004, The Middle East Journal, vol. 68, no. 1 Winter 2014.

World Bank and the Islamic Development Bank (2005), Tunisia: Understanding Successful Socioeconomic Development. World Bank, Washington DC

World Bank (2008), Tunisia’s Global Integration: A Second Generation of Reforms to Boost Growth and Employment, World Bank Report no. 45409.

Hibou, B., Meddeb, H. and Hamdi,M. (2011), Tunisia after 14 January and its Social and Political Economy, Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network.

African Development Bank (2013), Towards a New Economic Model for Tunisia: Identifying Tunisia’s Binding Constraints to Broad-Based Growth, www.afdb.org

Murphy, E. (2001), “Economic reform and the State in Tunisia” in Hakimian, H. and Moshaver, Z. (2001) The State and Global Change: The Political Economy of Transition in the Middle East and North Africa, Curzon.

Pfeifer, K. (1999). ‘How Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, and even Egypt Became IMF Success Story’, in Middle East Report, Fall 1999, pp. 23-27.

Lahouel, M. (1998), “Competition Polices and Deregulation in Tunisia”, Chpt. 3 in in Shafik, N.(ed) Economic Challenges Facing the Middle Eastern and North African Countries: Alternative Futures, Macmillan Press Ltd: Basingstoke.

Murphy, E. (1999), Economic and Political Change in Tunisia: From Bourguiba to Ben Ali.

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Important notice regarding changes to programmes and modules