SOAS University of London

Research and Evidence Facility on Migration in the Horn of Africa

Research Papers

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The impact of Youth Training and Employment on Migration Dynamics in the Horn of Africa

This report explores the relationship between technical and vocational education and training (TVET) programming and changing patterns of migration in the Horn of Africa (HoA). The report provides the findings of original research undertaken by the REF in Ethiopia and Uganda on TVET programmes supported by the EU Trust Fund for Africa (EUTF). These countries were selected as they provide a valuable context for researching the complex ways in which TVET, youth employment and migration relate to each other.

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Disrupting the Finances of Criminal Networks Responsible for Human Smuggling and Trafficking

Human smuggling and trafficking networks are in the midst of a transformation in terms of their modes of operations.  This report explores approaches to undermine the capacities of criminal networks and affecting their financial capabilities. It introduces innovative ways of gathering and sharing information, intelligence and evidence of the processes that underpin smuggling and trafficking operations and the networks behind them. 

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Changing Places: Migration and Displacement in the Horn of Africa

This report summarises discussions that took place at the recent research forum convened in Nairobi, Kenya by the Research and Evidence Facility (REF) of the EU Trust Fund for Africa in the Horn of Africa.

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Rapid Review of the European Union Emergency Trust Fund for Africa's Research and Evidence Facility, and Web and Social Media Analytics Report

This report reviews the outputs of the Research and Evidence Facility and provides recommendations and conclusions on how to build on the achievements of the REF thus far.

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REF Research Brief 04

This research brief provides an update of research activities completed by the REF over the past year. It also includes information on initiated research and exciting preliminary findings as well as an outline of upcoming research outputs.

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Darfuri migration from Sudan to Europe: from Displacement to Despair

Significant numbers of Sudanese, many from Darfur, have made the journey from Sudan to Europe in search of safety and a better life. While there has been significant interest in Sudan as a transit country for migration from Africa to Europe, little attention has been paid to Sudan as a source of migrants and refugees. This study documents for the first time the experiences of young Darfuris fleeing Sudan for Europe. It aims to deepen understanding of the trends, drivers and causes of migration and displacement from Darfur.

Report summary can be found here

Full report can be found here

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Return and (Re)Integration after Displacement; Belonging, Labelling and Livelihoods in Three Somali Cities

Somalia is experiencing a complex situation of protracted and new internal displacement, organised and spontaneous repatriation of refugees, people returning from the diaspora, and arrival of deported asylum seekers and migrants from other countries. The enormous scale of these movements towards major cities has led to overcrowding and added pressure on infrastructure, housing and services. Poor living standards, insecurity, protection issues and restricted livelihoods are the norm for many displaced and returning people.This report provides a contextualised and evidence-based analysis of the different factors that shape displacement, return and (re)integration in Somalia.

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Summary-Return and (Re)Integration after Displacement; Belonging, Labelling and Livelihoods in Three Somali Cities

Somalia is experiencing a complex situation of protracted and new internal displacement, organised and spontaneous repatriation of refugees, people returning from the diaspora, and arrival of deported asylum seekers and migrants from other countries. The enormous scale of these movements towards major cities has led to overcrowding and added pressure on infrastructure, housing and services. Poor living standards, insecurity, protection issues and restricted livelihoods are the norm for many displaced and returning people. This summary report is a condensed version of the full report that provides a contextualised and evidence-based analysis of the different factors that shape displacement, return and (re)integration in Somalia.

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Assessing the impact of migration management systems on livelihoods and migration: Evidence from Puntland

This research brief outlines the findings of the first case study for a REF research project exploring the actual and potential impact of migration management initiatives on sustainable development.

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The Lure of the City; Synthesis report on rural to urban migration in Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda

This report provides a synthesis of the findings from the study conducted by Rift Valley Institute and Research and Evidence Facility examining rural to urban migration in three secondary cities: Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, Eldoret, Kenya, and Gulu, Uganda. The study looked at the drivers of migration to cities, the experiences of those who have moved, the question of whether they have continued to maintain ties to rural areas, and the challenges faced by municipal and other government departments in responding to the increases in the numbers of urban residents.

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Eldoret, a City on the Move; Drivers, Dynamics and Challenges of Rural to Urban Mobility

Eldoret City Report

Eldoret is characterized by its cosmopolitan settings, with several ethnic groups mingling in the city and its particular history.The city is known for the re-Africanization of the White Highlands after independence. Eldoret can therefore be described as a city of migrants. But precisely because of this context, migration is a politically loaded term and a sensitive issue. This report unpacks this complexity and explores the drivers and dynamics related to rural to urban migration. 

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Mobility and Crisis in Gulu; Drivers, Dynamics and Challenges of Rural to Urban Mobility

Gulu City Report

Gulu is among the fastest growing urban centres in Uganda. There was a sudden population increase between 1991 and 2002, which can be attributed to the armed conflict in northern Uganda that forced many displaced people into the town. It stands at the junction of the major roads to northern Uganda, South Sudan and the Central African Republic.The road from the Ugandan border to Juba is a vital link between South Sudan and Kenya’s Indian Ocean ports, making Gulu an exciting research site to examine drivers and dynamics related to rural to urban migration.

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Expectations and Belonging in Dire Dawa; Drivers, Dynamics and Challenges of Rural to Urban Mobility

Dire Dawa City Report

With a population of well over 200,000, Dire Dawa city is the second largest city in Ethiopia. It has huge potential for growth and is strategically located between Ethiopia and Djibouti. The city is considered the country’s economic artery and outlet to the sea, which makes it an interesting place to explore drivers and dynamics associated with rural to urban mobility.

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Research Brief 03- Update of Research Activities and Publications

This is our latest research brief, published in November 2017, which highlights exciting studies that have been initiated in 2017, key findings from completed studies and details of our upcoming research activities.

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Policy Brief: Perilous Journeys, Migration between the Horn of Africa and Yemen

This policy brief highlights some of the key policy implications from the findings of a recent study on movement between the Horn of Africa and Yemen undertaken by the Research and Evidence Facility of the EU Trust Fund for Africa. This study set out to explore how and why people continue to move in large numbers between the Horn of Africa to Yemen despite the dangers of the journey and the deteriorating security situation in Yemen.

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Migration Between the Horn of Africa and Yemen (Executive Summary)

A Study of Puntland, Djibouti and Yemen
Submitted by staff of the Research and Evidence Facility For the EU Trust Fund for Africa (Horn of Africa Window) 
24 July 2017

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Migration Between the Horn of Africa and Yemen (Full Report)

A Study of Puntland, Djibouti and Yemen
Submitted by staff of the Research and Evidence Facility For the EU Trust Fund for Africa (Horn of Africa Window)
25 July 2017

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Research Brief 01- Taking stock of REF work

This brief provides an overview of the research activities that the Research and Evidence Facility has carried out thus far and highlights upcoming work.

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Research Brief 2 HoA Yemen Migration

This brief provides a summary of preliminary findings on our ongoing research exploring migration between the Horn of Africa and Yemen.

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Migration and Conflict in the Horn of Africa; A Desk Review and Proposal for Research

The Desk Review examines the state of research on migration, displacement and conflict in the Horn of Africa. We also consider the landscape of actors currently working on migration and conflict in the Horn, to identify areas that the efforts of the Research and Evidence Facility would be best placed to pursue over the coming two years.

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Cross Border Analysis Report-Summary

This is the summary of all four cross border analysis reports exploring Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan. For more in depth analysis of each of the cluster, please refer to the individual reports.

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Cross Border Analysis Report Cluster 1- SouthWest Ethiopia and Northwest Kenya

This is the first Cross Border Analysis Report, which examines the border dynamics concerning Southwest Ethiopia and Northwest Kenya.

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Cross Border Analysis Report Cluster 2-Kenya Somalia Ethiopia Cluster

This Cross Border Analysis Report focuses on the second cluster, which analyses the cross border dynamics of Kenya-Somalia-Ethiopia

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Cross Border Analysis Report Cluster 3: West Ethiopia- East Sudan

This is the third report of the Cross Border studies the REF conducted which provides a mapping and analysis of Western Ethiopia and Eastern Sudan

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Cross Border Analysis Report Cluster 4: Eastern Sudan and North-West Ethiopia

This Cross Border Analysis Report is the fourth cluster and provides insight on the Western Ethiopia-East Sudan border.

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