International Journal of Jaina Studies (IJJS) Archive 2006
Review of Acharya Kundkund: Barasa Anuvekkha
Author: Willem B. Bollée
2.1: September 2006; International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online), ISSN: 1748-1074
The review of Kundkund’s book Barasa Anuvekkha (Twelve Contemplations) deals with a free reprint of a Śaurasenī text which is a rarity. The reviewer’s remarks aim at providing some material for a new edition.
The Sthānāṅgasūtra: An Encyclopaedic Text of the Śvetāmbara Canon
Author: Kornelius Krümpelmann
2.2: September 2006; International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online), ISSN: 1748-1074
Every text which was included into the canon of the Śvetāmbara Jainas during the council at Valabhī in the fifth century AD deserves our attention. The contents of the Sthānāṅga, which comprises 783 sūtras, are distributed over ten chapters. Not only all the main subjects of the Jaina religion in its broader sense are listed, but also many other aspects of the Jaina conception of the world are mentioned. Therefore it is a work of extreme heterogeneity. All topics are subsumed under numbers one to ten, depending on how often they occur in the world. For example: “activity” (kriyā) is given in the first chapter, i. e. under number one. We can find the same term again under number two in the second chapter, because “activity” can refer both to the soul and to the body. Again, kriyā could be of mental, vocal or physical kind, so it goes also with number three. In chapter four we learn that kriyā might be caused by violence, possession, deceit or indiscipline, and so on. Points of discussion are the origin of the Sthānāṅga, its authorship, the earliest commentary on it (composed by Abhayadevasūri in 1120 VS), the underlying motive of its compilation, and its idea and intellectual structure, which are of particular importance for our understanding of the work. As a kind of lexicon to the entire Jaina Āgama, the Sthānāṅga was part of the curriculum of the monks. And without profound knowledge of this text, the attainment of the position of an ācārya was impossible.
Jaina Philosophy and Religion
Author: Peter Flügel
2.3: September 2006; International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online), ISSN: 1748-1074
Review article of the work Essays in Jaina Philosophy and Religion, edited by Piotr Balcerowicz of the University of Warsaw, published in 2003 in Delhi by Motilal Banarsidas, containing articles by N. Balbir, P. Balceroxicz, J. Bronkhorst, C. Caillat, J. Cort, C. Emmrich, P. Granoff, Muni Jambuvijaya, A. Mette, J. Soni, L. Soni, K. Watanabe, A. Wezler, and K. Wiley.
Are Jaina Ethics Really Universal?
Author: W. J. Johnson
2.4: October 2006; International Journal of Jaina Studies (Online), ISSN: 1748-1074
This article argues that the common conviction that Jaina ethical precepts are applicable to all people, in all circumstances, at all times, is based on a confusion. Through a consideration of such common Jaina practices as pūjā (worship), it shows that, in terms of its soteriological consequences, what is regarded as ahiṃsā depends on the identity of the actor (lay person or ascetic), rather than on the absolute quality of the action. The ethical means by which a person attains a particular soteriological effect (destruction of karma) therefore differs in accordance with their status. The argument concludes by suggesting that it is precisely this particularization of ethics that allows lay Jains to live in the world and still make significant soteriological progress.