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Department of the History of Art and Archaeology

Professor Doris Behrens-Abouseif

MA: American University in Cairo BA PhD (Hamburg) HABIL (Freiburg)

Overview

Doris Abouseif
Department of the History of Art and Archaeology

Nasser D Khalili Professor of Islamic Art and Archaeology

London Middle East Institute (LMEI)

Member

SOAS Food Studies Centre

Member, SOAS Food Studies Centre

Centre for Iranian Studies

Member

Centre for Ottoman Studies

Advisory Board Member

Name:
Professor Doris Behrens-Abouseif
Email address:
Telephone:
020 7898 4455
Fax:
020 7898 4479
Address:
SOAS, University of London
Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG
Building:
Brunei Gallery
Office No:
B303
Office Hours:
Wednesdays 5-6pm
Curriculum Vitae:
Doris Behrens-Abouseif CV (pdf; 26kb)

Biography

Before joining SOAS in 2000, Professor Abouseif taught Islamic Art at the American University in Cairo and at the Universities of Freiburg and Munich in Germany.

On two occasions, she was Visiting Professor at Harvard University at the Fine Art Department and the Graduate School of Design; she also was awarded a Bin-Ladin-fellowship to spend a semester at the Graduate School of Design.

She has also been invited as a Visiting Professor at the Universities of Berlin and Bamberg in Germany and the University of Leuven in Belgium, and was "Distinguished Visiting Professor" at the American University in Cairo.

Teaching

Courses Taught
PhD Students supervised
  • Maria Sardi, Mamluk textiles
  • Maurizia Onori, Neo-Islamic/Norman funeral architecture in Sicily 19th-20th century
  • Preeti Khosla, A Study of the Visual Language of the Indigenous Styles of Book Painting in North India during the Sultanate period (1414-1525 AD).
  • Sami L. De Giosa, Sultan Qaytbay and the decorative revival of the late Mamluk period.

Research

The history of architecture, urbanism and the decorative arts of the Middle East from the 13th to the 19th centuries with emphasis on Egypt, Syria mad Turkey; Islamic aesthetics and cultural history; moreover waqf studies (foundations and trusts). Her latest book, co-edited with Stephen Vernoit: Islamic Art in the 19th Century: Tradition, Innovation, Eclecticism, published by E.J. Brill Leiden/Boston, is based on a conference held at SOAS in April 2003, which invited scholars to look at the 19th century, a previously neglected period of Islamic Art, as deserving of most careful study from artistic, social and political perspectives.

She is currently completing a book on Cairo and Mamluk Patronage, which investigates the cultural and urban environment of the architecture created in Cairo by the Mamluks between the 13th and 16th centuries and the relationship between metropolitan and provincial areas. Her other major research interests deal with poetic inscriptions on late Mamluk metalwork.

Expertise

For help in contacting SOAS academics and advice on services to business and the community, please contact SOAS Enterprise on +44(0)20 7898 4837 or email enterprise@soas.ac.uk.
For all press and media enquiries please call +44 (0)20 7898 4135 or email comms@soas.ac.uk

Available for
  • Press
  • Special Study Programmes
  • Short Term Consultancy
  • Long Term Consultancy
  • Radio
Regional Expertise
  • Near and Middle East
Country Expertise
Languages

Publications

Authored Books

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2010) The minarets of Cairo: Islamic architecture from the Arab conquest to the end of the Ottoman Empire. London; New York: I.B. Tauris.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2007) Cairo of the Mamluks. A History of Architecture and Its Culture. London: I.B. Tauris.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1999) Beauty in Arabic Culture. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1998) Schönheit in der arabischen Kultur. München: Beck.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1995) Mamluk and post-Mamluk metal lamps. Le Caire: Institut français d'archéologie orientale.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1994) Egypt's adjustment to Ottoman rule: institutions, waqf and architecture in Cairo, 16th and 17th centuries. Leiden ; New York: E.J. Brill.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1989) Islamic architecture in Cairo: an introduction. Leiden ; New York: E.J. Brill.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1987) Fathallah and Abu Zakariya: Physicians under the Mamluks. Le Caire: Institut français d'archéologie orientale.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1985) The minarets of Cairo. Cairo, Egypt: American University in Cairo Press.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1985) Azbakiyya and its environs : from Azbak to Ismāʻīl, 1476-1879. Le Caire: Institut français d'archéologie orientale.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1972) Die Kopten in der ägyptischen Gesellschaft. Frieburg im Breisgau: K. Schwarz.

Edited Books

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris, ed. (2012) The Arts of the Mamluks in Egypt and Syria: Evolution and Impact. Bonn University Press. (Mamluk Studies; 1)

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris and Vernoit, S, eds. (2006) Islamic Art in the 19th century- Tradition, Innovation, Eclecticism. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris and Contadini, Anna, eds. (2004) Essays in Honor of J. M. Rogers. Leiden: Brill. (Muqarnas)

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris, ed. (2000) The Cairo Heritage: essays in honor of Laila Ali Ibrahim. Cairo; New York: The American University in Cairo Press.

Book Chapters

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2014) 'Between Quarry and Magic: The Selective Approach to Spolia in the Islamic Monuments of Egypt.' In: Payne, Alina, (ed.), Dalmatia and the Mediterranean. Portable Archaeology and the Poetics of Influence. Boston; Leiden: Brill, pp. 402-425.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2012) 'The Ottoman Conquest of Egypt and the Arts.' In: Conquête ottomane de l'Égypte (1517). Arrière-plan, impact, échos. Leiden: E.J. Brill, pp. 303-326.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2012) 'Die Urbanisierung der Moschee als Ausdruck der Metropolität Kairos.' In: Oberste, Jörg, (ed.), Metropolität in der Vormoderne. Konstruktionen urbaner Zentralität im Wandel. Regensburg: Verlag Schnell & Steiner. (Forum Mittelalterlicher Studien vol. 7)

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2012) 'Mamluk Perceptions of foreign Arts.' In: Behrens-Abouseif, Doris, (ed.), The Arts of the Mamluks in Egypt and Syria Evolution and Impact. Bonn University Press . (Mamluk Studies 1)

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2012) 'A bronze tambourine-player.' In: Porter, Venetia and Ross-Owen, Mariam, (eds.), Metalwork and Material Culture in the Islamic World. Art, Craft and Text. London: I.B.Tauris.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2011) 'The Ottoman Conquest of Egypt and the Arts.' In: Nicola, Michel and Benjamin, Lellouch, (eds.), Conquête ottomane de l'Égypte (1517). Arrière-plan, impact, échos. Leiden: E.J. Brill. (In Press)

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2010) 'A Late Mamluk Lidded Tray with Poetic Inscription.' In: Jürgen Wasim, Frembgen, (ed.), The Aura of Alif. The Art of Writing in Islam. Munich: Prestel.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2009) 'The Waqf: A legal personality?' In: Meier, Astrid et al., (ed.), Gottes Eigentum für alle Zeiten? Islamische Stiftungen von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2009) 'Views of Egypt and Turkey by the Hungarian Arts Lajos (Ludwig) Libay.' In: Dávid, Géza and Gerelyes, Ibolya, (eds.), Thirteenth International Congress of Turkish Art. Proceedings. Budapest: Hungarian National Museum, pp. 103-112.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2008) 'Multifunction and Diversity in the Medieval Mosque: The case of Cairo.' In: Rau, Susanne and Schwerhoff, Gerd, (eds.), Topographien des Sakralen. Religion und Raumordnung in der Vormoderne. Berlin: Dölling und Galitz Verlag, pp. 104-115.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2008) 'The Mamluk City.' In: Jayyusi, Salma K. et al., (ed.), The City in the Islamic World,. Leiden; Boston: Brill, pp. 295-316. (Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section I. The Near and Middle East, v.94)

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2008) 'Multifunction and Diversity in the Medieval Mosque: The case of Cairo.' In: Susanne, Rau and Schwerhoff, Gerd, (eds.), Topographien des Sakralen : Religion und Raumordnung in der Vormoderne. Hamburg: Dölling und Galitz, pp. 104-115.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2007) 'Beyond the secular and the sacred: Qur'anic inscriptions in medieval Islamic art and material culture.' In: Suleman, Fahmida, (ed.), Word of God, Art of Man: The Qur'an and its Creative Expressions. Selected Proceedings from the International Colloquium, London, 18-21 October 2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 41-49.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2007) 'Architectural Style and Identity in Egypt.' In: Sofaer, Joanna, (ed.), Material Identities. London: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 67-81.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2006) 'A Late Mamluk Oil Lamp in the National Museum of Budapest.' In: Baker, P. L. and Brend, B., (eds.), Sifting sands, reading signs : studies in honour of Professor Géza Fehérvárí. London: Furnace Publishing, pp. 155-160.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2006) 'The Visual Transformation of Egypt during the Reign of Muhammad Ali.' In: Behrens-Abouseif, D. and Vernoit, S., (eds.), Islamic Art in the 19th century. Tradition, Innovation, Eclecticism. Leiden; Boston: E.J. Brill, pp. 109-130.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2005) 'From Sárospatak to Cairo: the Odyssey of a Design.' In: Gerelyes, Ibolya, (ed.), Turkish Flowers. Studies on Ottoman Art in Hungary. Budapest: Hungarian National Museum, pp. 51-54.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2004) 'Islamic Art (1300-1500) Between Rupture and Continuity.' In: Abulafia, D., (ed.), Mediterraneum: splendour of the medieval Mediterranean, 13th-15th centuries. Barcelona: Lunwerg Editores, pp. 85-105.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2004) 'European Arts and Crafts at the Mamluk Court.' In: Behrens-Abouseif, D. and Contadini, A., (eds.), Essays in Honor of J. M. Rogers. Leiden: Brill, pp. 45-54. (Muqarnas)

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2002) 'Topographie médiévale d’Alexandrie.' In: Décobert, Christian and Empereur, Jean-Yves, (eds.), Alexandrie médiévale II. Le Caire: Institut français d'archéologie orientale, pp. 1-13.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2002) 'Trois Planches de Pascal Coste.' In: Panzac, Daniel and Raymond, André, (eds.), La France et l'Egypte à l'époque des vice-rois, 1805-1882. Cairo: Institut Francais d'Archeologie Orientale, pp. 101-110. (Cahier des Annales Islamologiques 22-2002)

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2001) 'Une Polémique Anti-Ottomane par un Artisan au Caire du XVIIe Siècle.' In: Marino, Brigitte, (ed.), Etudes sur les villes du Proche-Orient : XVIe-XIXe siècle : hommage à André Raymond. Damas: Institut français d'études arabes de Damas, pp. 45-53.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2001) 'An Italian Architect in Cairo: A portrait of Vittorio Del Burgo.' In: Volait, M, (ed.), Le Caire, Alexandrie, architectures européennes. 1850-1950. Cairo: CEDEJ/IFAO, pp. 193-202.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2000) 'La conception de la ville dans la pensée arabe du Moyen-Âge.' In: Nicolet, C. and Ilbert, R. and Depaule, J.-C., (eds.), Mégapoles méditerranéennes: géographie urbaine rétrospective : actes du colloque organisé par l'Ecole française de Rome et la Maison méditerranéenne des sciences de l'homme, Rome, 8-11 mai 1996. Paris: Maison méditerranéenne des sciences de l'homme, pp. 32-40.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris and Denoix, S. and Garcin, J.-C. (2000) 'Le Caire.' In: Jean-Claude, Garcin, (ed.), Grandes Villes méditerranéennes du monde musulman médiéval. Rome: Ecole Française de Rome, pp. 177-203.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2000) 'Waqf as Remuneration and the Family Affairs of Al-Nasir Mohammad and Baktimur al-Saqi.' In: Behrens-Abouseif, D., (ed.), The Cairo Heritage. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, pp. 55-68.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1998) 'Patterns of urban patronage in Cairo: a comparison between the Mamluk and the Ottoman periods.' In: Philipp, T. and Haarmann, U., (eds.), The Mamluks in Egyptian politics and society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 224-234.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1998) 'Notes sur l'Architecture Musulmane d'Alexandrie.' In: Décobert, Christian and Empereur, Jean-Yves, (eds.), Alexandrie Médiévale 1. Cairo: IFAO, pp. 101-114.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1997) 'An Industrial Complex in Ottoman Cairo: The Tanneries at Bab al-Luq.' In: Crecelius, D. and Badr, H. and Ismāʻīl, M., (eds.), Dirāsāt fī tārīkh Miṣr al-iqtiṣādī wa-al-ijtimāʻī fī al-ʻAṣr al-ʻUthmānī: aʻmāl al-Nadwah al-ʻIlmīyah allatī aqāmatʹhā Hayʼat Fūlbrāyit bi-al-Qāhirah fī al-fatrah min 6-8 Dīsimbir 1996 M. al-Qāhirah: Dār al-Āfāq al-ʻArabīyah, pp. 1-8.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1997) 'The Lion-Gazelle Mosaic at Khirbat al-Mafjar.' In: Necipoglu, Gülru, (ed.), Muqarnas XIV: an Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World. Leiden: Brill, pp. 11-18.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1995) 'Sicily, the Missing Link in the Evolution of Cairene Architecture.' In: Vermeulen, U. and De Smet, D., (eds.), Egypt and Syria in the Fatimid, Ayyubid and Mamluk eras. Leuven: Peeters, pp. 275-301.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1995) 'Al-Nasir Muhammad and al-Ashraf Qaytbay—Patrons of Urbanism.' In: Vermeulen, U. and De Smet, D., (eds.), Egypt and Syria in the Fatimid, Ayyubid and Mamluk eras. Leuven: Peeters, pp. 257-274.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1995) 'The Waqf of a Cairene Notable in early Ottoman Cairo—Muhibb al-Din Abu al-Tayyib, Son of a Physician.' In: Deguilhem, Randi, (ed.), Le waqf dans l'espace islamique : outil de pouvoir socio-politique. Damas: Institut français de Damas, pp. 123-132.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1992) 'Le Acque del Cairo - Scenario e Stile di Vita di una Città Islamica.' In: Jones, Dalu, (ed.), Il Teatro delle Acque. Roma: Edizioni dell'Elefante, pp. 31-41.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1990) 'Three Zawiyas in Early Ottoman Cairo.' In: Majda, Tadeusz, (ed.), Seventh International Congress of Turkish Art. Warsaw: Polish Scientific Publishers, pp. 49-55.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1990) 'Note sur la Fonction de la Cour dans la Maison Moyenne du Caire Ottoman.' In: L'Habitat traditionnel dans les pays musulmans autour de la Méditerranée: rencontre d'Aix-en-Provence, 6-8 juin 1984. Tome II. L'histoire et le milieu. Le Caire: Institut français d'archéologie orientale, pp. 411-418.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1982) 'Quelques Traits de l’Habitation Traditionnelle dans la Ville du Caire.' In: Bouhdiba, A. and Chevallier, D., (eds.), La Ville arabe dans l'Islam : histoire et mutations. Tunis: Impr. Al Asria, pp. 447-459.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1982) 'The Political Situation of the Copts, 1798-1923.' In: Braude, Benjamin and Lewis, Bernard, (eds.), Book Title: Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire. volume 2. New York: Homes & Meier Publishers, pp. 185-205.

Articles

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2011) 'The madrasa of Sultan Mahmud in Cairo.' Muqarnas, 28 . (In Press)

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2011) 'Craftsmen, Upstarts and Sufis in the late Mamluk period.' Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 74 (3). pp. 375-395.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2010) 'Between Istanbul and Cairo: Louis Francois Cassas and the Panoramic Perspective.' Archaeology and Travelers in Ottoman Lands, University of Pennsylvania (Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology) .

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2009) 'The Jalayirid Connection in Mamluk Metalwork.' Muqarnas, 25 . pp. 149-160.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2006) 'The Islamic History of the Lighthouse of Alexandria.' Muqarnas. An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World., 23 . pp. 1-14.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2005) 'Veneto-Saracenic Metalware, a Mamluk Art.' Mamluk Studies Review, 9 (2). pp. 147-172.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2004) 'The Fire of 884/1479 at the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus and an Account of Its Restoration.' Mamluk Studies Review, 8 (1). pp. 279-97.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2002) 'Sultan al-Ghawri and the Arts.' Mamluk Studies Review, 6 . pp. 69-75.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1999) 'Qaytbay’s Madrasahs in the Holy Cities and the Evolution of Haram Architecture.' Mamluk Studies Review, 3 . pp. 129-149.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1998) 'Sultan Qaytbay's Foundation in Medina: the Madrasah, the Ribat and the Dashishah.' Mamluk Studies Review, 2 . pp. 61-71.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1998) 'Qaytbay’s Investments in the City of Cairo: Waqf and Power.' Annales Islamologiques, 32 . pp. 29-40.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1996) 'The Mahmal Legend and the Pilgrimage of Ladies of the Mamluk Court.' Mamluk Studies Review, 1 . pp. 87-96.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1995) 'A Late Mamluk [?] Basin with Zodiac Imagery.' Annales Islamologiques, 29 . pp. 1-21.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1995) 'Muhandis, Shadd, Mu´allim - Note on the Building Craft in the Mamluk Period.' Der Islam, 72 (2). pp. 293-309.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1995) 'Muhandis, Shadd, Mu´allim - Note on the Building Craft in the Mamluk Period.' Der Islam, 72 (2). pp. 293-309.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1993) 'Cadaster Registers in Medieval Egypt.' Environmental design: journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre., 11 . pp. 92-95.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1992) 'The ´Abd al-Rahman Katkhuda Style in 18th Century Cairo.' Annales Islamologiques, 26 . pp. 117-126.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1992) 'The Façade of the Aqmar-Mosque in the Context of Fatimid Ceremonial.' Muqarnas, 9 . pp. 29-38.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1992) 'The Takiyyat Ibrahim al-Kulshani in Cairo.' Muqarnas, 5 . pp. 43-60.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1992) 'Gardens in Islamic Egypt.' Der Islam, 69 (2). pp. 302-312.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1989) 'The Baptistère de St.Louis—A Reinterpretation.' Islamic Art, 3 . pp. 3-13.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1989) 'The Image of the Physician in Arab Biographies of the post-classical Age.' Der Islam, 66 . pp. 331-343.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1988) 'The Citadel of Cairo: Stage for Mamluk Ceremonial.' Annales Islamologiques, 24 . pp. 25-79.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1986) 'Locations of non-Muslim Quarters in Medieval Cairo.' Annales Islamologiques, 22 . pp. 117-132.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1985) 'Change in Function and Form of Mamluk Religious Institutions.' Annales Islamologiques, 21 . pp. 73-93.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris and Femandes, L. (1984) 'Sufi Architecture in Early Ottoman Cairo.' Annales Islamologiques, 20 . pp. 103-114.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1983) 'The Qubba, an Aristocratic Type of zawiya.' Annales Islamologiques, 19 . pp. 1-7.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1983) 'The Lost Minaret of Shajarat ad-Durr at Her Complex in the Cemetery of Sayyida Nafisa.' Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, 39 . pp. 1-16.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1982) 'An Unlisted Monument of the Fifteenth Century: The Dome of Zawiyat al-Damirdash.' Annales Islamologiques, 18 . pp. 105-121.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1981) 'The Northeastern Extension of Cairo under the Mamluks.' Annales Islamologiques, 17 . pp. 157-189.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1978) 'Circassian Mamluk suburb in the Northeast of Cairo.' AARP (Art and Archeology Research Paper) . pp. 17-23.

Conference or Workshop Items

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2001) The Family mausoleum of Muhammad Ali: Hawsh al-Basha. In: The International Symposium of Ottoman Heritage in the Middle East, 2001, Hatay/Ankara.

Other

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (2010) 'Aesthetics.' In: Encyclopaedia of Islam 3rd ed. (online). Leiden: Brill.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1997) 'Mamelucchi.' In: Enciclopedia dell’Arte Medievale (Enciclopedia Italiana). Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris (1988) '“Baybars I Camii”,“Baybars II Hankah”,“Berkuk Külliyesi”,“Beşir Aga Sebilküttâbi”,“Cevher Sarayı”,“Cüyûşî Camii”,“Ebû’z-Zeheb Camii”.' In: Islam Ansiklopedisi (Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı). Istanbul.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris '“Glass”, “Goldsmith Art”, “Precious Stones”.' In: Enciclopedia Archeologica (Enciclopedia Italiana). Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris '“Mashrabiyya”, “Muqarnas”, “Muqattam”, “Rab´”, “Sabil”; “Waqf” I. (The Arab Lands 1.Egypt ), “Mamluk Art”.' In: Encyclopaedia of Islam -2nd ed. Leiden: Brill.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris '“Cups and Vessels”, “Instruments”.' In: Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an. Leiden: Brill.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris '“Boutros Ghali,” British Occupation of Egypt,” “National Party”.' In: Coptic Encyclopaedia. Macmillan.

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris '“Cairo 1250-1900”.' In: Macmillan Dictionary of Art. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd..

This list was generated on Sat Aug 30 00:58:18 2014 BST.