Professor Christopher Cramer
MA, MPhil, PhD (Cantab)
Professor of the Political Economy of Development
Project Board Member
Member, Centre of African Studies
Member, SOAS Food Studies Centre
Research Cluster Member
Research Cluster Member
Research Cluster Member
Research Cluster Member
- Professor Christopher Cramer
- Email address:
- +44 (0)20 7898 4492
- SOAS, University of London
Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG
- Russell Square: College Buildings
- Office No:
BiographyEconomics of Africa, political economy of development, political economy of war and peace in southern Africa; post-conflict reconstruction; the economics of cashew production, processing and trade; poverty and rural labour markets; privatization.
PhD Students supervised
- Dave Poole, A Search for the ‘Missing Middle”
- Kasper Vrolijk, Economic Transformation in Africa: Industrial Policy, Technology Characteristics and Sectors in Contemporary Ethiopia
- Nina Kaysser, (working title): Economic growth and Hindu-Muslim violence
- Philippa McMahon, [working title] Surplus to Requirements: Urban poor livelihoods and experiences of resettlement in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
- Pritish Behuria, The Logic of 'Rational Benevolence': The Political Economy of Dispersing Elites through Privatization and Diversification in Post-1994 Rwanda.
- Rebecca E. Engel, International interventions during transition in Timor-Leste: Implications for stability and the prevention of violent conflict
- Sarajuddin Isar, Taxation and state-building in Afghanistan, a political economy framework
Christopher has also taught at Cambridge and Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique and has worked in South Africa as well as delivered public lectures on economics in the Seychelles and short-course training programmes in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Namibia. He has done consultancy work for the ILO, UNDP (UN Development Programme), UNCTAD (UN Commission on Trade, Aid & Development), FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN), IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development), the European Commission, SIDA, the World Bank, and the Ethiopian Government.
His book Civil War is Not a Stupid Thing: Accounting for Violence in Developing Countries, published by Hurst (London) and published in the USA as Violence in Developing Countries: War, Memory, Progress by Indiana University Press (2006) was a joint winner of the 2009 Edgar Graham Memorial Book Prize.
He is a member of the Advisory Council for the Ibrahim Index of African Governance and since 2007 he has also participated in the Africa Task Force set up by Joseph Stiglitz.
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- Special Study Programmes
- Short Term Consultancy
- Long Term Consultancy
- South Africa
Cramer, Christopher (2006) Civil War Is Not a Stupid Thing. Accounting for Violence in Developing Countries. London: Hurst & Company.
Weeks, John and Andersson, David and Cramer, Christopher and Geda, Alemayehu and Hailu, Degol and Muhereza, Frank and Rizzo, Mateo and Ronge, Eric and Stein, Howard (2002) Supporting Ownership: Swedish Development Cooperation with Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Volume 2: Country Studies. Sweden: Sida.
Weeks, John and Andersson, David and Cramer, Christopher and Geda, Alemayehu and Hailu, Degol and Muhereza, Frank and Rizzo, Mateo and Ronge, Eric and Stein, Howard (2002) Supporting Ownership: Swedish Development Cooperation with Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Volume 1: Synthesis Report. Sweden: Sida.
Cramer, Christopher and Goodhand, Jonathan (2011) 'Hard science or waffly crap? Evidence-based policy versus policy-based evidence in the field of violent conflict.' In: Bayliss, Kate and Fine, Ben and Waeyenberge, Eisa Van, (eds.), The Political Economy of Development. The World Bank, Neo-Liberalism and Development Reseearch. London: Pluto Press, pp. 215-238.
Oya, Carlos and Cramer, Christopher and Sender, John (2008) 'Discretion and Heterogeneity in Mozambican Rural Labour Markets.' In: de Brito, Luis and Castel-Branco, Carlos and Chichava, Sergio and Francisco, Antonio, (eds.), Reflecting on Economic Questions. Maputo, Mozambique: IESE, pp. 50-71.
Cramer, Christopher (2005) 'Angola and the Theory of War.' In: Chabal, P and Engel, U and Gentili, A-M, (eds.), Is Violence Inevitable in Africa? Theories of Conflict and Approaches to Conflict Prevention. Brill, Netherlands, pp. 17-34.
Cramer, Christopher (2005) 'Gerald K. Helleiner.' In: Simon, D, (ed.), Fifty Key Thinkers on Development. Routledge, UK.
Cramer, Christopher and Castel-Branco, C (2003) 'Privatisation and Economic Strategy in Mozambique.' In: Addison, T, (ed.), From Conflict to Recovery in Africa. OUP (UK), pp. 155-170.
Cramer, Christopher and Goodhand, J (2003) '" 'Try Again. Fail Again. Fail Better?'.' In: Milliken, J, (ed.), State Failure, Collapse & Reconstruction: Issues & Responses. Blackwell (UK).
Cramer, Christopher and Weeks, John (2002) 'Macroeconomic Stabilization and Structural Adjustment.' In: Wayne, E and Vayrynen, R, (eds.), The Prevention of Humanitarian Emergencies. UNU/WIDER, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Cramer, Christopher (2002) 'The Economics and Political Economy of Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa.' In: Livingstone, I, (ed.), Renewing Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policy, Performance and Prospects. Routledge (UK), pp. 55-80.
Cramer, Christopher (2002) 'War, Peace and Capitalism.' In: Saad Filho, Alfredo, (ed.), Anti-Capitalism: A Marxist Introduction. London: Pluto.
Cramer, Christopher (2002) 'Disuguaglianza economiche e guerre civil.' In: I Signori della Guerra: stati e micropolitica dei confliti. Italy: l'Ancora, pp. 129-148.
Weeks, John and Cramer, Christopher (2002) 'Conflicts, agriculture and food security.' In: The State of Food and Agriculture: Lessons from the Past 50 Years. Rome: FAO.
Cramer, Christopher and Bayliss, Kate (2001) 'Privatisation and the Post-Washington Consensus: Between the Laboratory and the Real World.' In: Fine, B. and Lapavitsas, C. and P`incus, J., (eds.), Development policy in the 21st century: beyond the post-Washington consensus. London: Routledge, pp. 52-79.
Cramer, Christopher and Johnston, Deborah and Oya, Carlos and Sender, John (2015) 'Fairtrade cooperatives in Ethiopia and Uganda: uncensored.' Review of African Political Economy, 41 (S1). S115-S127.
Cramer, Christopher and Johnston, Deborah and Mueller, Bernd and Oya, Carlos and Sender, John (2014) 'How to do (and how not to do) fieldwork on Fair Trade and rural poverty.' Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 35 (1). pp. 170-185.
Cramer, Christopher and Johnston, Deborah and Oya, Carlos (2009) 'Africa and the Global Credit Crunch: from crisis to opportunity?' African Affairs, 108 (433). pp. 643-654.
Cramer, Christopher and Oya, Carlos and Sender, John (2008) 'Rural Labour Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa: A New View of Poverty, Power and Policy.' CDPR Policy Brief (1).
Cramer, Christopher and Oya, Carlos and Sender, John (2008) 'Lifting the Blinkers: A New View of Power, Diversity and Poverty in Mozambican Rural Labour Markets.' Journal of Modern African Studies, 46 (3). pp. 361-392.
Sender, John and Oya, Carlos and Cramer, Christopher (2006) 'Women Working for Wages: Putting Flesh on the Bones of a Rural Labour Market Survey in Mozambique.' Journal of Southern African Studies, 32 (2). pp. 313-333.
Weeks, John and Cramer, Christopher and Stein, Howard (2006) 'Ownership and Donorship: Analytical Issues and a Tanzanian Case Study.' Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 24 (3). pp. 415-436.
Cramer, Christopher (2003) 'Does Inequality Cause Conflict?' Journal of International Development, 15 (4). pp. 397-412.
Cramer, Christopher (2003) 'Should developing country industrialisation policies encourage processing of primary commodities?' The Courier: the magazine of ACP-EU development cooperation, vol. 1 . pp. 30-32.
Cramer, Christopher (2002) 'Homo Economicus Goes to War: Methodological Individualism, Rational Choice and the Political Economy of War.' World Development, 30 (11). pp. 1845-64.
Goodhand, Jonathan and Cramer, Christopher (2002) 'Try Again, Fail Again, Fail Better? War, the State, and the 'Post-Conflict' Challenge in Afghanistan.' Development and Change, 33 (5). pp. 885-909.
Cramer, Christopher and Goodhand, J (2002) 'Try Again. Fail Again. Fail Better? War, the State and the 'Post-Conflict' Challenge in Afghanistan.' Development and Change, vol. 3 . pp. 885-909.
Cramer, Christopher (2000) 'Privatisation and Adjustment in Mozambique: a ''Hospital Pass''?' SOAS Department of Economics Working Paper No. 111, 111 .
Cramer, Christopher (2000) 'Inequality, Development and Economic Correctness.' SOAS Department of Economics Working Paper Series No. 105, vol. 1 .
Cramer, Christopher (1999) 'Can Africa Industrialize by Processing Primary Commodities? The Case of Mozambican Cashew Nuts.' World Development, 27, No . pp. 1247-1266.
Cramer, Christopher and Pontara, Nicola (1998) 'Rural poverty and poverty alleviation in Mozambique: what''s missing from the debate?' Journal of Modern African Studies, 36 (1). pp. 101-138.
Cramer, Christopher and Johnston, Deborah and Oya, Carlos and Sender, John (2014) Fairtrade, Employment and Poverty Reduction in Ethiopia and Uganda. London: SOAS.
Sender, John and Cramer, Christopher and Oya, Carlos (2005) Unequal prospects: disparities in the quantity and quality of labour supply in sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Social Protection Discussion Paper Series; No.0525.
Cramer, Christopher (1999) Privatisation and the Post-Washington Consensus: Between The Lab And The Real World? CDPR Discussion Paper 0799.
Cramer, Christopher (2002) 'Own up! Does anyone out there have a decent theory of ownership?' (Unpublished)