SOAS University of London

Department of History, School of History, Religions & Philosophies

Ayman Shihadeh

BA (London), MSt, DPhil (Oxon)
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Ayman Shihadeh
Department of History, School of History, Religions & Philosophies

Reader in Arabic Intellectual History

Department of Religions and Philosophies, School of History, Religions and Philosophies

Reader in Arabic Intellectual History

London Middle East Institute (LMEI)


Dr Ayman Shihadeh
Email address:
+44(0) 20 7898 4343
SOAS University of London
Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG
Russell Square: College Buildings
Office No:
Academic Support Hours:
Monday, 3.00-4.00, or by appointment


Dr Shihadeh is an intellectual historian specialising in medieval Arabic and Islamic philosophy and rational theology. He began his studies at SOAS, the University of London, where he obtained a first-class BA (Hons), and completed his postgraduate studies at the University of Oxford. He then worked at universities in England and Scotland before returning to SOAS in 2008. His main areas of interest are the Avicennan philosophical tradition, the development of the Ash‘ari school, the interaction between post-Avicennan philosophy and kalam, particularly during the late-eleventh and twelfth centuries, and Arabic codicology. Much of Dr Shihadeh’s work focuses on Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (d. 1210) and al-Ghazali (d. 1111), two hugely influential medieval thinkers whom he has been contextualising by the exploration of key, though little-known, figures and manuscript texts. One of his main current research projects investigates the transformation of the Ash‘ari stance towards Avicenna’s philosophical anthropology, especially his body-soul dualism, during the eleventh and twelfth centuries.

Main External Affiliations
  • Section Editor (Philosophy and Theology) for the Encyclopaedia of Islam (3rd ed., Brill).
  • Contributor to the Arabic Manuscripts Project at the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin.
  • Member of the Editorial Board, Intellectual History of the Islamicate World (Brill).
  • Member of the Academic Advisory Board of the Islamic Translation Series (BYU Press).
  • Member of the Editorial Board, Journal of Qur’anic Studies (EUP).
  • Member of the Editorial Board, Ilahiyat Studies (Uludağ University).


Programmes Convened
Modules Taught
PhD Students supervised
  • Laura Hassan, Physical theory and Creation in the thought of Sayf al-Dīn al-Āmidī (d.1233): a study of the integration of falsafī methods and doctrines into Ash’arī kalām (Working Title)
  • Mariam Shehata, Abū l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī’s Theory of Divine Knowledge and Its 12th Century Reception


Medieval Arabic intellectual history; the history of medieval Arabic philosophy and Islamic theology, especially kalam; Arabic codicology


Authored Books

Shihadeh, Ayman (2017) Fahreddîn er-Râzî’nin Gayeci Ahlâkı (Turkish translation of The Teleological Ethics of Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, by Selime Çınar and Kübra Şenel). Istanbul: Nobel Academic Publishing (Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık).

Shihadeh, Ayman (2016) Doubts on Avicenna. A Study and Edition of Sharaf al-Dīn al-Masʿūdī’s Commentary on the Ishārāt. Leiden and Boston: Brill.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2006) The Teleological Ethics of Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. Leiden: E.J. Brill.


Shihadeh, Ayman (2019) 'Avicenna’s Theodicy and al-Rāzī’s Anti-Theodicy'. Intellectual History of the Islamicate World, (7), pp 61-84. [Forthcoming]

Shihadeh, Ayman (2016) 'Gazzâlî'den Râzî'ye: 6/12. Yy.'da Felsefî Kelâmda Yeni Gelişmeler (Turkish translation of 'From al-Ghazālī to al-Rāzī: 6th/12th Century Developments in Muslim Philosophical Theology', translated by Bilal Taşkın)'. Kelam Araştırmaları Dergisi, (14) 1, pp 240-278.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2014) 'Avicenna's Corporeal Form and Proof of Prime Matter in Twelfth-Century Critical Philosophy: Abū l-Barakāt, al-Masʿūdī and al-Rāzī'. Oriens: Journal of Philosophy, Theology and Science in Islamic Societies, (42) 2-4, pp 364-396.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2014) 'Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s Response to Sharaf al-Dīn al-Masʿūdī’s Critical Commentary on Avicenna’s Ishārāt'. The Muslim World, (104) 1, pp 1-61.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2013) 'The Argument from Ignorance and Its Critics in Medieval Arabic Thought'. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, (23) 2, pp 171-220.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2013) 'A Post-Ghazālian Critic of Avicenna: Ibn Ghaylān al-Balkhī on the Materia Medica of the Canon of Medicine'. Journal of Islamic Studies, (24) 2, pp 135-174.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2012) 'Classical Ash'ari Anthropology: Body, Life and Spirit'. The Muslim World, (102) 3-4, pp 433-477.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2011) 'Ash'ariyya'. Oxford Bibliographies Online.

Shihadeh, Ayman and Suleiman, Y. (2007) 'Islam on Campus: Teaching Islamic Studies at Higher Education Institutions in the UK'. Journal of Beliefs & Values, (28) 3, pp 309-329.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2006) 'Three Apologetic Stances in al-Tufi: Theological Cognitivism, Noncognitivism, and a Proof of Prophecy from Scriptural Contradiction'. Journal of Qur’anic Studies, (8) 2, pp 1-23.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2005) 'From al-Ghazali to al-Razi: 6th/12th Century Developments in Muslim Philosophical Theology'. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy, (15) 1, pp 141-179.

Edited Books or Journals

Shihadeh, Ayman, (ed.), (2013) Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī’s Father, Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn al-Makkī. Nihāyat al-Marām fī Dirāyat al-Kalām. Facsimile of the Autograph Manuscript of Vol. II. Berlin; Tehran: Freie Universität Berlin and Mīrāth-i Maktūb.

Shihadeh, Ayman, (ed.), (2012) The Ontology of the Soul in Medieval Arabic Thought. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. (The Muslim World, double issue 102.3-4).

Shihadeh, Ayman, (ed.), (2007) Sufism and Theology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Shihadeh, Ayman, (ed.), (2005) Najm al-Din al-Tufi: Dar’ al-qawl al-qabih bi-l-tahsin wa-l-taqbih (Critical edition and study). Riyadh: King Faisal Centre for Research and Islamic Studies.

Book Chapters

Shihadeh, Ayman (2016) 'Theories of Ethical Value in Kalam: A New Interpretation'. In: Schmidtke, Sabine, (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 384-407.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2016) 'Religious Readings of Philosophy'. In: Taylor, Richard C. and López-Farjeat, Luis X., (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Islamic Philosophy. London and New York: Routledge, pp 412-422.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2016) 'Al-Razi’s Earliest Kalam Work'. In: Schwarb, Gregor and Muehlethaler, Lukas, (eds.), Theological Rationalism in Medieval Islam: New Texts and Perspectives. Leuven: Peeters. [Inpress]

Shihadeh, Ayman (2016) 'Al-Ghazālī and Kalām: The Conundrum of His Body-Soul Dualism'. In: Griffel, Frank, (ed.), Islam and Rationality. The Impact of al-Ghazālī. Papers Collected on His 900th Anniversary. Vol. 2. Leiden and Boston: Brill, pp 113-141.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2016) 'Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī's Commentary on Avicenna's Pointers'. In: El-Rouayheb, Khaled and Schmidtke, Sabine, (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Islamic Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Inpress]

Shihadeh, Ayman (2013) 'Aspects of the Reception of Avicenna’s Theory of Prophecy in Islamic Theology'. In: Houser, R. E., (ed.), Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association: Philosophy in the Abrahamic Traditions. Volume 86, 2012. Houston, TX: Philosophy Documentation Center, pp 23-32.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2011) 'Khojazada on al-Ghazali's Criticism of the Philosophers' Proof of the Existence of God'. In: Yücedoğru, Tevfik and Koloğlu, Orhan and Kılavuz, Murat and Gömbeyaz, Kadir, (eds.), International Symposium on Khojazada (22-24 October 2010 Bursa): Proceedings. Bursa: Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi, pp 141-161.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2011) 'New Light on the Reception of al-Ghazali’s Doctrines of the Philosophers (Maqasid al-Falasifa)'. In: Adamson, Peter, (ed.), In the Age of Averroes: Arabic Philosophy in the Sixth/Twelfth Century. London: The Warburg Institute, pp 77-92.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2008) 'The Existence of God'. In: Winter, T., (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 197-217.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2007) 'The Mystic and the Sceptic in Fakhr al-Din al-Razi'. In: Shihadeh, Ayman, (ed.), Sufism and Theology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp 101-122.


Shihadeh, Ayman (2016) 'Ḍiyā’ al-Dīn al-Makkī'.

Shihadeh, Ayman (2013) 'Favour (Divine)'.


This list was last generated on Friday, 22nd February 2019, 15:39 Europe/London.